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Famine Foods
Compiled by Robert Freedman

POACEAE or Graminae

The Grass family

Andropogon Gayanus, Stapf. Chad (central): grains eaten. Soils favored by plant: clayey, and sandy. Vernacular name - Arabic: Sméné. Ref. CRÉAC'H.

Aristida publifolia, Sudan (western): seeds of this wild grass are gathered by ants. They are dug out, sifted, powdered and made into porridge. Chemical composition (per 100 grams): Protein = 12.6g. Fat = 4.6g. Kcal = 377. Vernacular names - Arabic: Koreb. Englsh: Hungry Rice. Ref. BERRY-KOCH.

Bambusa arundinacea, Humb. & Bonpl.; Alt.; Wight. ex Steud.; Willd. India: seeds eaten. India (Rajasthan, western ): newly sprouted buds eaten; growing buds used for vegetable and pickled; (Madras Presidency): seeds eaten as rice substitute. Young shoots cooked into curries; Garhwal Himalayas: young shoots made into curry and pickled. Chemical composition (seeds): Lysine content has been analyzed at 4.4% to 4.8%, compared to such cereals as wheat and rice, which have lysine contents of ca. 2.5%. Tryptophan deficit is up to 50%. Cultivation as a crop is limited only by the long time taken for the plant to flower - a factor which might be rectified by selective breeding. Mean net protein utilization (NPU) is 73.6%. Growth-promoting effect is equivalent to that of milk protein. Biological valence and digestive co-efficient averages 78.2% to 94.1%. Protein efficiency ratio is 2.92% as compared to skim milk at 2.78%. Vernacular names - Tamil: Mungil arisee. Telugu: Veduru. English: Bamboo. Ref. GUPTA, RAO, SAXENA; SHANKARNARAYAN & SAXENA, SHORTT, SRINAVAS et al., WATT.

Brachiaria brizantha, Stapf. Zimbabwe: seeds are sun-dried, winnowed, ground into flour and cooked into a thick porridge. Ref. ZINYAMA.

Brachiara lata (Schumach.) C.E Hubbard. Nigeria (Kano State, northern): seeds eaten. Vernacular name - Hausa: Gariji. Ref. MORTIMORE.

Brachiaria publifolia, Stapf. Chad (central): grain eaten. Soil types favored by plant: clayey and sandy. Vernacular name - Arabic: Djigré. Ref. CRÉAC'H.

Brachiaria ramosa (L.) Stapf. (syn. Panicum ramosum, L.) India (Western Rajasthan): seeds mixed with bajra (millet) to increase bulk; or mixed with other grains. It is noted that chapattis prepared from its flour should be consumed with buttemilk, otherwise it causes acute constipation. Soil type favored by plant: moist, alluvial flats. Vernacular name: Kuri. Ref. GUPTA & KANODIA, SAXENA; SHANKARNARAYAN & SAXENA.

Brachiaria regularis, Stapf. Chad (central): grain eaten. Soil type favored by plant: clayey. Vernacular name - Arabic: Kamdallah. Ref. CRÉAC'H.

Cenchrus biflorus, Roxb. India (Rajasthan, western ): seeds eaten mixed with Bajra (millet) for bread making. Seeds used for making bread, especially in Marwar. Seeds also eaten raw. Soil types favored by plant: sand dunes, sandy plains. Sudan (Kordofan, Darfur): seeds removed from husks by rubbing spikes between two pieces of leather. Seeds are pounded and eaten raw or made into porridge. They can also be mixed with other foods. A thin bread (Kisra) is also made from the seeds. Nigeria (Kano State, northern): seeds eaten. Rare in northern Kano. Chemical composition (Sudan sample): Sulphur = 0.20% (dry). Potassium = 0.18% - Magnesium = 0.7% (dry). Calcium = 0.07% (dry). Na = 0.01% (dry). K = 0.17% (dry). Zinc = 52mg/kg-1 (dry). Iron = 71mg/kg-1 (dry). Manganese = 22mg/kg-1 (dry). Copper = 5mg/kg-1 (dry). Aluminum = 124mg/kg-1 (dry). Fatty acids (saturated): 14:0 = <0.1g/100g-1. 16:0 = 23.8. 18:0 = 4.0. 22:0 = <0.1g/100g-1. 24:0 = <0.1g/100g-1; (monosaturated): 16:1 = 3.0. 18:1 = 30.2. 20.1 = <0.1g/100g-1; (polyunsaturated): 18.2 = 35.7. 18:3 = 1.9. Vernacular names - India: Bhurat /Bhurut. Sudan: Haskaneet. Nigeria (Hausa): K 'arangiya. Kanuri: Ngibbi. Ref. ABDELMUTI, MORITMORE, SAXENA; SALIH, NOUR & HARPER, SHANKARNARAYAN & SAXENA.

Cenchrus catharticus, Del. Central Chad: grain eaten. Soil types favored by plant: clayey and sandy. Vernacular name - Arabic: Ascanit abou choc ('Spiny cram-cram '). Ref. CRÉAC'H.

Cenchrus ciliaris, Fig. & DeNot.; L. India (Rajasthan, western): seeds eaten mixed with bajra (millet) for bread making. Seeds also eaten raw. Soil type favored by plant: alluvial flats. Vernacular name: Dhaman. Ref. SAXENA; SHANKARNARAYAN & SAXENA.

Cenchrus leptachantus, A. Camus. Chad (central) : grain eaten. Soil types favored by plant: clayey and sandy. Vernacular name - Arabic: Ascanit abou choc ('Spiny cram-cram '). Ref. CRÉAC'H.

Cenchrus Prieurii (Kunth.) Maire. India (Rajasthan, western ): seeds eaten raw; also, mixed with Bajra (millet) seed for making bread. Vernacular names: Dhamnio, Lambio -bhurut. Ref. SAXENA.

Cenchrus setigerus, Stend.; Vahl. India (Rajasthan, western ): seeds eaten mixed with bajra (millet) for bread making. Seeds also eaten raw. Soil type favored by plant: alluvial flats, gravelly area [sic]. Vernacular names: Motha dhaman, Kata -dhaman, Kala -Dhaman [?]. Ref. GUPTA & KANODIA, SAXENA; SHANKARNARAYAN & SAXENA.

Chloris Prieuri, Kunth. Chad (central): grain eaten. Soil types favored by plant: clayey; and black soil along the edges of ponds, swamps and bogs. Vernacular name - Arabic: Sag -en -naham. Ref. CRÉAC'H.

Coix lachryma-jobi, L. India: seeds eaten by the Bhil people. The seed is enclosed in a hard shell which has to be broken by pounding or rough grinding. It is either mixed with Panicum colonum, L. [POACEAE] or Zea mays, L. [POACEAE] and made into bread. It is also prepared like rice. Its taste is reported to be similar to wheat. Chemical composition (grams /100g): Protein = 18.81g. Fat = 6.2g. Carbohydrate (soluble) = 59.55g. Fibre = 1.28g. Ash = 3.4g. Water = 10.74g. Calories = 378. Vernacular name - (Bhil group): Kasaiya. Ref. PATON & DUNLOP.

Coix lachryma -jobi, var. frumentacea, Makino. China: seeds eaten. Chemical composition: Protein = 18.7%. Fat = 5.2%. Carbohydrate = 59.3% (mostly starch). Ash = 2.1%. Vernacular names - Adlay, Job's Tears. Ref. READ.

Cynodon Dactylon, Pers. India (Madras Presidency): tender leaves and shoots eaten. Vernacular names - Tamil: Aroogum pillo. Telulgu: Garike. Ref. SHORTT.

Eleusine ægyptiaca, Desf. India (Madras Presidency): grains eaten. Vernacular names -

Dactyloctenium ægyptium (L) Beauv.; Willd. (syn. Eleusine aegyptica, Desf.) India (Rajasthan): the rugose seed grains are eaten cooked into a thick porridge or the husked seeds are boiled in water to a thick mush. Mixed with semi-ground Phaseolus aconitifolius, Jacq. [FABACEAE], the grains are prepared into a dish called Keech, which is much relished. Also reported mixed with Bajra (millet), and other grains (for bread-making); (Bhil group): Church reports two grain samples, from different areas, which he states are identical, but with different vernacular names: 1)Anchu Manchu and, 2) Mali or Manebhi. The first is reported unsavory and hard to chew, constipating, bloating and urine inhibiting. The second, which is made into bread, is reported much relished. Chad (central): grain eaten. Sudan (Kordofan, Darfur): seeds ground into a flour to make Kisra, a thin local bread; or porridge. In extreme famine conditions the grain, which is also collected by ants, has been dug from underground and eaten. Soil types favored by plant - Chad (central): clayey, sandy; black soil along the borders of ponds, swamps and bogs. India: along water channels; Bhil area: brown soil. Chemical composition (Sudan sample): Protein (crude) = 13.1% (dry). Oil = 1.9% (dry). Fibre (crude) = 4.4% (dry). Ash (insoluble) = 8.3% (dry). Sulphur = .18% (dry). Potassium = 0.39% (dry). Manganese = 0.22% (dry). Calcium = 1.07% (dry). Na = 0.02% (dry). K = 0.30% (dry). Zinc = 69mg/kg-1 Iron = 121mg/kg-1 (dry). Mn = 425kg/kg-1 (dry). Copper = 7mg/kg-1 (dry). Aluminum = 172mg/kg-1 (dry). Carbohydrate (soluble): Starch = 46.9% (dry). Sucrose = 1.2% (dry). D-glucose = 0.2%(dry). D-fructose = 1.4% (dry). Amino acids (g [16g N ]-1): Aspartic acid = 6.1g. Threonine = 3.7%. Serine = 4.8g. Glutamic acid = 27.6g. Proline = 7.1g. Glycine = 3.5g. Alanine = 7.5g. Valine = 5.8g. Cysteine = 1.5g. Methionine = 3.2g. Isoleucine = 4.8g. Leucine = 9.9g. Tyrosine = 3.5g. Phenylalanine = 6.8g. Histidine = 2.4g. Lysine = 2.0g. Arginine = 4.2g. Fatty acids (saturated): 14:0 = <0.1g/100g-1. 16:0 = 21.5. 18:0 = 5.2. 22:0 = 0.6. 24:0 = <0.1g/100g-1; (monounsaturated): 16:1 = 0.1. 18:1 = 42.0. 20:1 = 0.4; (polyunsaturated): 18:2 = 28.5. 18:3 = 1.5. (Chemical composition (after Paton & Dunlop (grams per 100g) (Anchu Manchu): Proteid = 12.87g. Fat = 2.08g. Carbohydrate (soluble) = 64.03g. Fibre = 4.86g. Ash = 4.58g. Water = 11.58g. Calories = 335. (Mali ): Proteid = 8.41g. Fat = 1.45g. Carbohydrate (soluble) = 38.97g. Fibre = 36.95g. Water = 8.48g. Calories = 201. Vernacular names - India (Rajasthan, Jaisalmer district, ): Makara, Manchi. Rajasthan (western): Makta. (Bhil group): Anchu Manchu, Mali. Chad (central)- Arabic: Abou Asabé ['Father of fingers']. Sudan: Koreeb. Tamil: Muttengapilloo. Telugu:Tamida, Sodee. Ref. ABDELMUTI, BHANDARI, CRÉAC'H; GUPTA & KANODIA, PATON & DUNLOP, SAXENA; SHANKARNARAYAN & SAXENA, SHORTT.

Dactyloctenium ægyptium seed (photo credit Dr. Omar Mohammed Salih Abdelmuti, Ph.D)

Dactyloctenium aegyptium seed

Dactyloctenium scindicum, Boiss. India (Rajasthan, western ): the grain of this plant is eaten but reported to cause internal disorders. Said to be mixed with Bajra (millet). Vernacular names: Tantia ghas, Ganthi. Ref. BHANDARI; SHANKARNARAYAN & SAXENA.

Dendrocalamus polypoides, India (Kumaon region, Western Himalayas): seeds eaten; (Garhwal Himalayas): young shoots made into curry and pickled; seeds eaten. Vernacular name - Kumaon region: Bans. Ref. BHARGAVA, GUPTA.

Dendrocalamus strictus, Nees. India: seeds and shoots eaten. It has been recommended that, if the various Indian state forest departments take interest in utilizing the immense forest wastes of deformed, stunted, or lean [bamboo] shoots, another flourishing food industry could be developed in India, as has been done in Japan. Vernacular name: Male Bamboo. Ref. LAL et al, WATT.

Dinebra arabica, Kunth. Chad (central): grain eaten. Soil type favored by plant: clayey. Vernacular name - Arabic: Am danabé ('Mother of Lines '). Ref. CRÉAC'H.

Echinochloa Burgu, A. Chev. Chad (central): grains eaten. Soil type favored by plant: black soil along the borders of ponds. Vernacular name - Arabic: Am sakiné ('Mother of Knives '). Ref. CRÉAC'H.

Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link. Chad (central): grains eaten. India (Rajasthan, western): boiled in water and used as a substitute for rice. When plant starts drying, branches are threshed and seeds pounded for flour for making bread. Sudan (Kordofan, Darfur): seeds ground into flour from which is prepared a porridge, or Kisra, a flat bread. Nigeria (Kano State, northern): seeds [sic] eaten. Chemical composition (Sudan sample): Protein (crude) = 10.6% (dry). Oil = 5.9% (dry). Fibre (crude) = 12.3% (dry). Ash (insoluble) = 8.7% (dry). Fibre (crude) = 12.3% (dry). Carbohydrate (soluble): Starch) = 51.1% (dry). Sucrose = 1.0% (dry). D-glucose = 0.4% (dry). D-fructose = 0.4% (dry). Amino acids (g [16g N]-1): Aspartic acid = 5.2g. Threonine = 3.5g. Serine = 4.7g. Glutamic acid = 25.3g. Proline = 8.2g. Glycine = 2.6g. Alanine = 10.3g. Valine = 5.8g. Cysteine = 0.8g. Methionine = 1.6g. Isoleucine = 4.6g. Leucine = 10.8g. Tyrosine = 4.3g. Phenylalanine = 6.9g. Histidine = 2.1g. Lysine = 2.1g. Arginine = 41.g. Fatty acids (g/100g) (saturated): 14:0 = 0.1g. 16:0 = 16.9g; (saturated): 18:0 = 3.1g. 22:0 = 0.3g. 24:0 = 0.2g.; (monounsaturated): 16:1 = 0.1g. 18:1 = 27.4g. 20:1 = 0.4g; (polyunsaturated): 18:2 = 50.5g. 18:3 = 1.0g. Minerals: Sulphur = 0.11% (dry). Potassium = 0.41% (dry). Magnesium = 0.22% (dry). Calcium = 0.05% (dry). Na = 0.01% (dry). K = 0.30% (dry). Zinc = 50mg/kg-1(dry). Iron = 108mg/kg-1 (dry). Manganese = 28mg/kg-1 (dry). Copper = 4mg/kg-1 (dry). Aluminum = 88mg/kg-1 (dry). Soil types favored by plant - Chad (central): clayey. Rajasthan (western): water-logged areas; moist, marshy places, older alluvial soils. Vernacular names - Chad (central) - Arabic: Diffré. Rajasthan (western): Soma, Sama, Sawa, Homa. Sudan: Difra, Jungle Rice. Ref. ABDELMUTI, CRÉAC'H; GUPTA & KANODIA, SALIH, NOUR & HARPER, SAXENA; SHANKARNARAYAN & SAXENA.

Echinochloa colonum seed (photo credit Dr. Omar Mohammed Salih Abdelmuti, Ph.D)

Echinochloa colonum

Echinochloa pyramidalis, Hitchcock (syn. Panicum pyramidale, Lam.) Chad (central) : grains eaten. Vernacular name - Arabic: Al foula ("bord de mares."). Ref. CRÉAC'H.

Eleusine indica, Gaertn. Chad (central): grains eaten. Soil type favored by plant: clayey. Vernacular name - Arabic: Kalassindra. Ref. CRÉAC'H.

Eragrostis clelandii, S.T. Blake. Australia (South Australia): seeds ground and made into dampers. Ref. IRVINE.

Eragrostis tremula, Hochst. Chad (central): grains eaten. Soil type favored by plant: sandy. Vernacular name - Arabic: Am djiangka. Ref. CRÉAC'H.

Lasiurus hirsutus (Forsk.) Boiss. (syn. Rottbolia hirsuta, Vahl.) India (Rajasthan): seeds are collected, ground, mixed with bajra (millet) flour, and made into Sogra (a rather hard-baked bread). Vernacular name (plant) - Rajasthan, Jaisalmer district: Sevan. Ref. BHANDARI.

Oryza barthii, A. Chev. Nigeria (Kano State, northern): seeds eaten. Vernacular name - Hausa: Shinkafar gyado. Ref. MORTIMORE.

Oryza punctata, Kotzchy. ex Steud. Sudan (southern Darfur): grains dehulled and boiled with water or milk. Chemical composition: Protein (crude) = 13.9% (dry). Oil = 4.0% (dry). Ash (insoluble) = 4.4% (dry). Fibre (crude) = 2.9% (dry). Carbohydrate (soluble) (starch) = 70.0% (dry). Sucrose) = 1.0% (dry). D-glucose = 0.2% (dry). D-fructose = 0% (dry). Amino acids (g[16gN ]-1): Aspartic acid = 9.7g. Threonine = 3.4g. Serine = 4.0g. Glutamic acid = 19.3g. Proline = 3.8g. Glycine = 4.5g. Alanine = 5.5g. Valine = 5.9g. Cysteine = 1.5g. Methionine = 2.2g. Isoleucine = 4.1g. Leucine = 8.6g. Tyrosine = 4.8g. Phenylalanine = 5.2g. Histidine = 2.3g. Lysine = 3.6g. Arginine = 8.4g. Fatty acids (saturated) (g/100g)-1: 14:0 = 0.6g. 16:0 = 20.6g. 18:0 = 2.2g. 22:0 = 0.4g. 24:0 = 0.5g; (monounsaturated): 16:1 = 0.1g. 20:1 = 0.6g; (polyunsaturated): 18:2 = 30.6g. 18:3 = 1.9g. Minerals: Sulphur = 0.14% (dry). Potassium = 0.55% (dry). Magnesium = 0.27% (dry). Calcium = 0.04% (dry). Na = 0.01%. K = 0.37%. Zinc = 39mg/kg-1 (dry). Iron = 168mg/kg-1 (dry). Manganese = 49mg/kg-1 (dry). Copper = 7mg/kg -1(dry). Aluminum = 562mg/kg-1 (dry). Vernacular name - Arabic: Ruz al wadi. Ref. ABDELMUTI; SALIH, NOUR & HARPER.

Oryzopsis hymenoides (R&S) Ricker. North America (Arizona): grains eaten by Native American Hopi group. Vernacular name: Indian Ricegrass. Ref. CASTETTER, MINNIS.

Oryzopsis hymenoides (photo credit Prof. Paul Minnis)

Oryzopsis hymenoides

Panicum antidotale, Retz. India (Rajasthan, western): seeds eaten fried, and also mixed with Bajra (millet); used for bread-making. Soil types favored by plant: sand, sand dunes, undulating plains. Vernacular name: Gramna. Ref. SHANKARNARAYAN & SAXENA.

Panicum colonum, L. (syn. Oplismenus colonus, H.B. & K.). India: a wild grain which is ground into flour, sometimes being mixed with Zea mays, L. or gram (Phaseolus mungo, L. [syn. Phaseolus aureus, Roxb. {FABACEAE}]), baked into bread, and eaten with chutney, onions, forest fruits, or boiled leaves. The seeds are sun-dried, then rammed or threshed to remove the husks. When roughly ground (Bhil: Kodri), it is cooked like rice, in salted water, and eaten with legumes, or chutney, and called by the Bhils Rab or Ghena. It is considered to be a 'cool' food. Chemical composition (after Paton & Dunlop) (grams per 100g): Protein = 10.68g. Fat = 5.20g. Carbohydrate (soluble) = 51.16g. Fibre = 14.68g. Ash = 7.35g. Water = 10.93g. Calories = 301. Soil type favored by plant: black, cultivable; swampish in rainy season, stream verges. Vernacular names - Bhils: Champaran. Bombay Presidency - Khandesh district, Shirpur: Shama, Sarwak, Shamak, Shama millet, Wild rice, Jungle rice,Tan; Surat district Bardoli: Zari ; Broach district, Anklesvar: Samo; Kaira district, Matar: Sama. Ref. GAMMIE; PATON & DUNLOP.

Panicum Crus-galli Beauv. (syn. Panicum Crus-galli, Beauv.).India (Bombay Presidency): seeds threshed and [ground and] used for bread flour especially on fast[ing] days and Hindu ceremonies. The grass may be dried on [over?] fire or, the grass with seed is turned on fire [sic] for some time and then the seed is taken off and eaten without being ground. (Rajasthan, western ): seeds boiled and eaten. China: \ seeds steamed, made into porridge or gruel or ground into flour. Soil types favored by plant: water-logged fields with medium- heavy soils. Vernacular names - Bombay Presidency: Nasik district, Kalwan Taluka: God, Tan. Surat district, Bardoli: Ziro. Rajasthan (western): Samaw, Samak. English: Barnyard Grass. Ref. GAMMIE; GUPTA & KANODIA, READ, SAXENA.

Panicum flavidum, Retz. India (Rajasthan, western): grains used for bread-making. Soil types favored by plant: moist places with medium-heavy soils. Vernacular name: Gorin. Ref. GUPTA & KANODIA.

Panicum javanicum, Poir. India (Bhill group): as for Panicum colonum (q.v.), but reported less sweet in taste. Chemical composition (per grams/100g): Proteid = 10.50g. Fat = 4.0g. Carbohydrate (soluble) = 42.11g. Fibre = 17.02g. Ash = 16g. Water = 8.82g. Calories = 258. Soil type favored by plant: waste land. Vernacular name: Podru. Ref. PATON & DUNLOP.

Panicum lætum, Kunth. Nigeria (Kano State, northern): seeds [sic] eaten. Chad (central): grain eaten. Timam. Soil type favored by plant - Chad (central): sandy. Vernacular name - Hausa: Baya. Arabic:Timam. Ref. CRÉAC'H, MORTIMORE.

Panicum maximum, Jacq. Tanzania (Ngindoland): grain gathered in sifting trays held by the harvesters who rub the ripe grass between their palms. The grains are roasted, dried thoroughly, and then pounded. They are then boiled and eaten salted or unsalted, and/or with a relish. Vernacular name - Ngindo: Lumbunga. Ref. CROSS-UPCOTT, TAIRA.

Panicum Tactum, Kunth. Chad (central): grains eaten. Soil type favored by plant: clayey. Vernacular name - Arabic: Timam ('The Twins '). Ref. CRÉAC'H.

Panicum turgidum, Forsk.; Hochst. ex Steud. Chad (central): grains eaten. Nigeria (Kano State, northern): seeds [sic] eaten. India (Rajasthan, western ): seeds eaten fried, or mixed with other grains e.g. Bajra (millet); used in bread-making. Soil type favored by plant - Chad (central): clayey; Rajasthan (western): sand dunes and sandy plains. Vernacular names - Chad (central) (Arabic): Timam ('The Twins '). Rajasthan (western): Murut. Ref. CRÉAC'H; GUPTA & KANODIA, MORTIMORE, SAXENA; SHANKARNARAYAN & SAXENA.

Pennisetum Prieuri, Kunth. Chad (central) : grains eaten. Soil type favored by soil: sandy. Vernacular name - Arabic: Ascanit abu - souf ('Silky cram-cram '). Ref. CRÉAC'H.

Sacciolepis africana, C. E. Hubbard & Snowden. Africa (west): unspecified portion of plant eaten during times of scarcity. Ref. IRVINE.

Sacciolepis interrupta, Stapf. Chad (central): grains eaten. Soil types favored by plant: clayey and sandy. Vernacular name - Arabic: Guilguil. Ref. CRÉAC'H.

Setaria glauca Beauv. (syn. Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). China: seeds cooked into porridge or gruel. India (Bombay Presidency): seeds prepared similarly to Panicum Crus-Galli. Chemical composition: Protein = 11.5%. Fat = 6.03%. Carbohydrate = 40.73%. Ash = 8.23%. Vernacular names - Bombay Presidency, Nasik district, Kalwan: Kolhu. Surat district, Bardoli: Kolvi. English: Yellow Fox Tail, Short Millet. Ref. GAMMIE, READ, UPHOF.

Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv. India (Rajasthan, western ): seeds eaten. Vernacular name: Chirchita. Ref. SAXENA.

Sorghum sudanense, Stapf. in Prain. (?) (Créac'h gives S. sudanicus which species is not listed in Index Kewensis.) Chad (central): grain eaten. Vernacular name - Arabic: Adar ("bord de mares"). Ref. CRÉAC'H.

Triticum repens, L. (syn. Argopyrum repens, L.). Norway: roots ground into flour. Ref. SAYCE.

Vetiveria Nigritana (Benth.) Stapf. Nigeria (Kano State, northern): roots eaten. Vernacular name - Hausa: Jema. Ref. MORTIMORE.

Zizania latifolia, Turcz. Japan: processed into flour during the period of scarcity immeditely following World War II. Vernacular name: Water Oats. Ref. S.C.A.P., TAIRA, UPHOF.