New Crops News
The Newsletter of the Indiana Center for New Crops and Plant Products
Fall 1994 Volume 4 No. 2
The Third New Crops Symposium will be held October 22-25 in Indianapolis, Indiana at the Adam's Mark Hotel, adjacent to the Indianapolis International Airport. The theme of the Symposium will be "New Crops: New Opportunities, New Technologies." The Objectives of the symposium are three fold: (1) to identify promising new crops and plant products and update new crops research, development, and technology; (2) to encourage new directions in national and state new crop policies; and (3) to
develop strategies for commercialization. The symposium will provide a national forum for leading authorities from industry, government, experiment stations, academia, as well as growers, to discuss the status and future of new crop development. As in previous symposia, we expect to have a significant international attendance.
Lectures and panel discussion will provide overviews and analyses on a wide range of new crops including cereals and pseudocereals, forages, industrial crops, fiber crops, grain legumes, fruit crops, vegetable crops, aromatic, spice and medicinal plants, and floral and landscape crops. Special sections will stress new crop policy, new crop information access, new crop commercialization, new technological breakthroughs, and international opportunities in new crops.
This 3.5-day intensive conference will include a poster session and published proceedings to complement the two previous books Advances in New Crops (560p, Timber Press, 1990) and New Crops (710p, Wiley, 1993). Freida Caplan, Frieda Inc., Los Angeles, will deliver the banquet speech: "Marketing New Food Crops." Noel Vietmeyer, National Research Council, will give the keynote address: "New Crops: Solutions for Global Problems."
For more information contact:
Jules Janick (fax: 765/494-0391)
Indiana Center for New Crops and Plant Products
1165 Horticulture Bldg.
West Lafayette, IN 47907-1165
The symposium is under the auspices of the Indiana Center for New Crops and Plant Products at Purdue University, the Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC), and the Indiana Business Modernization and Technology Corporation (BMT).
The poster sessions will provide opportunities to share and view the latest research and development projects in new crops. Poster displays will be adjacent to the meeting rooms for convenient access during the conference.
Abstracts for the posters are due May 15, 1995. Check the appropriate box on the registration form if you are interested in presenting a poster. Instructions for submitting abstracts will be sent to you. All abstracts will be reviewed for scientific and technological content prior to acceptance. Authors will be invited to submit full manuscripts for inclusion in the proceedings of the conference.
Exhibit space is available for academic or commercial exhibits. Please check the registration form to receive further information.
The symposium will be held at the Adam's Mark Hotel, Indianapolis. Lecture rooms, poster area, and restaurants are excellent. Hotel and lodging information will be sent to those indicating interest in the conference or in
registering early. Hotel reservation cards will be included in the next mailing. Reservations can also be made directly to the hotel by calling: 317/248-2481.
Be sure to mention that you are coming to the National New Crops Symposium in order to receive the special conference rate of $85/night (1-3 individuals per room). We have reserved a limited number of rooms, so make your reservations early.
Most airlines service Indianapolis International Airport. The Adam's Mark Hotel provides complementary shuttle bus service to all participants.
Agrostemma githago Corncockle
Ammi majus False Queen Ann's Lace
Antirrhinum majus Snapdragon
Callistephus chinensis Aster
Carthamnus tinctorius Safflower
Celosia cristata Cockscomb
Centaurea cyanus Bachelor Button
Centaurea moschata Sweet Sultan
Chrysanthemum carinatum Tri-color Chrysanthemum
Chrysanthemum x morifolium Chrysanthemum
Chrysanthemum segetum Corn Chrysanthemum
Chrsyanthemum spectabile Annual Chrysanthemum
Cirsium japonicum Japanese Thistle
Consolida ajacis Larkspur
Cosmos bipinnatus Cosmos
Craspedia uniflora (globosa)
Emilia javonica Tassle Flower, Cacalia
Eustoma grandiflora Lisianthus
Godetia grandiflora (Clarkia) Godetia, Satin Flower
Gomphrena globosa Globe Amaranth
Helichrysum bracteatum Strawflower
Iberis 'Mount Hood' Rocket Candytuft
Limonium sinuatum Annual Statice
Limonium suworworii Tassel Statice
Mathiola incana Stock
Molucella laevis Bells of Ireland
Nigella damascena Love-in-a-Mist
Salvia farinacea Blue Salvia
Salvia leucantha Velvet Sage
Scabiosa atropurpurea Pincushion Plant
Trachelium caeruleum Throatwort
Zinnia elegans Zinnia
Achillea X 'Coronation Gold' Yarrow
Achillea filipendulina 'Parker's Yarrow
Variety', 'Gold Plate'
Achillea millefoium 'Cerise Yarrow
Queen', 'Rose Beauty'
Achillea X 'Galaxy' Yarrow
Aconitum napellus Monkshood
Alchemilla mollis Lady's Mantle
Aquilegia hybrida Columbine
Aquilegia caerulea Columbine
Astilbe arendsii hybrids Astilbe
Astilbe taquetii 'Superba' Astilbe
Astrantia major Masterwort
Campanula persicifolia Bellflower
Centaurea cyanus Bachelor Button
Centaurea macrocephela Basket Flower
Centranthus ruber Valarian
Chrysanthemum parthenium Feverfew
Chrysanthemum x superbum Shasta Daisy
Cirsium japonicum Thistle
Dianthus barbatus Sweet William
Echinacea purpurea Purple Coneflower
Eryngium alpinum Sea Holly
Gypsophila paniculata Baby's Breath
Helianthus angustifolius Sunflower
Iris (many species) Iris
Kniphofia hybrids Red Hot Poker
Limonium latifolium Sea Lavender
Monarda didyma Bee Balm
Phlox paniculata Phlox
Physostegia virginiana 'Pink Obedient Plant
Bouquet', 'Summer Snow'
Platycodon grandiflorus 'Fuji' Balloon Flower
Scabiosa caucasica Pincushion Flower
Sedum spectabile Sedum
Thalictrum dipterocarpum Rue
Acidanthera Peacock Orchid
Allium aflatunese Ornamental Onion
Allium giganteum Ornamental Onion
Allium sphraerocephalum Ornamental Onion
Eremerus Shelford mix Kings Spear
Gladiolus byzantinus Dwarf Gladiolus
Gladiolus nana Dwarf Gladiolus
Gladiolus (large flowered cultivars) Garden Gladiolus
Iris Dutch Iris
Liatris callilepis Blazing Star
Liatris pycnostachya Blazing Star
Liatris spicata Blazing Star
Lilium hybrids Asiatic Hybrids
Lilium hybrids Oriental Hybrids
Ornithogalum arabicum Star-of-Bethlehem
Ornithogalum thrysoides Star-of-Bethlehem
Polianthes tuberosa Tuberose
Bob Anderson, Extension Floriculture Specialist, University of Kentucky
*Based upon a presentation delivered during the 1994 Indiana Horticultural Congress "New Crops for the Heartland."
An Interactive Communication System
The New Crops Center has developed an electronic mail system to facilitate communication among new crops researchers. This electronically based mail system functions as follows: subscribers write in and ask questions, make announcements, and raise issues for discussion to the group. It is a public system and every subscriber receives the information. Subscribers can file incoming items for their own information or reply. Replies sent to the newcrops list are automatically sent to the entire group. Private replies can be sent to an individual's e-mail address. Such a system is only effective if it is used by the subscribers. Basic information such as the source of new germplasm and researchers working in a particular area, can be quickly handled via this system. This type of electronic mail is known as LISTSERV, and is not an electronic bulletin board, but a mail system.
To subscribe, post a message to:
The body of the message should say:
subscribe newcrops name, institution
where name, institution are your full name and institution. Do not add a subject line Confirmation will be automatically sent to you, usually the same day.
The New Crops Center is organizing an electronic bulletin board dedicated to new crops and plant products, that will be accessible via Gopher-Mosaic and World Wide Web. There will be a dedicated computer system for the processing and data-management of establishing this bulletin board. Electronic bulletin boards differ from the LISTSERV as described above, which fosters dialogue and communication in a typical on-line manner. A bulletin board will have a fixed menu with options for the user to choose in order to receive specific information. The bulletin board will include directions for use, sections on announcements, upcoming symposia, meetings, a new crops library, copies of New Crops News and a directory of new crops "experts." The library that is being created at present includes New Crops Facts_data sheets on individual new crops and plant products and information about Purdue's New Crops Center. We hope to have the bulletin board up and running by March, 1995. We welcome suggestions to make this bulletin board more useful to you_the user, as this is a new venture for us.
To post messages to the group, send e-mail to:
Please send any questions, problems, or suggestions about the system to:
email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
We welcome news, inquires, announcements, and all other discussion.
Jim Simon and Jules Janick
Indiana Center for New Crops and Plant Products
Intermediate wheatgrass, Thino-pyrum (Agropyron) intermedium, is a familiar forage and pasture grass in much of the Great Plains. It now has the potential to become a commercially viable perennial grain crop.
Intermediate wheatgrass, a perennial relative of wheat, produces grain which is higher in protein and bran content than wheat. Unlike all other cereal and psuedocereal crops currently available, intermediate wheatgrass is a perennial, providing year-round soil cover to help prevent erosion. It can be grown on hilly erodible land that should not be continuously cropped with annuals, or it can be grown on contour strips alternating with annual crops.
Intermediate wheatgrass is widely adapted throughout the U.S. and Canada. It was introduced to the U.S. in the 1930s from central Asia and the eastern Mediterranean region. Traditionally, it has been grown as a forage in the northern Great Plains, including Manitoba and Saskatchewan, west to eastern Washington, and south to Colorado and northern Kansas. It is adapted to areas with annual precipitation of 15 inches or more and grows well as far east as Pennsylvania. In addition to use as a forage, it has been grown extensively for erosion control along roadways and mine reclamation sites. Recently it has been used to successfully revegetate denuded hillsides resulting from zinc smelting around Palmerton, Pennsylvania.
The idea of using intermediate wheatgrass as a perennial grain crop is not completely new. In the 1920s and 1930s, Russian scientists attempted to develop a perennial wheat by crossing domestic annual wheat with intermediate wheatgrass. The resulting crosses, when successful, were not perennial. More recently, work at the Rodale Institute Research Center (RIRC), Kutztown, Pennsylvania, USA has focused upon developing intermediate wheatgrass into a perennial grain crop.
Work began at RIRC in 1983 to identify the perennial grass species with greatest potential for development into a perennial grain crop. Perennial grasses which produced fairly large, easily threshed, synchronously maturing seeds held on strong stalks that could be mechanically harvested were identified. Taste tests indicated that among the dozen perennial grasses that fit these criteria, intermediate wheatgrass was by far the best tasting, having a mild, sweet, nutty flavor. The flavor and appearance of baked products made with intermediate wheatgrass flour was rated good to excellent in formalized taste tests conducted by USDA in 1989.
In addition to taste tests, nutritional studies conducted by USDA indicated that intermediate wheatgrass grain contains 20% protein and higher bran content than wheat. No antinutritive components were found, and intermediate wheatgrass grain lacks gluten. Tests have not yet been conducted to determine if individuals with wheat or gluten allergies can tolerate intermediate wheatgrass grain. In addition to grinding intermediate wheatgrass grain into flour for use in baked products, it can be cooked as a whole grain like rice. The grain cooks at the same speed as brown rice, and the two in combination make an attractive, flavorful pilaf.
Production techniques developed by the forage seed industry can be used for grain production. At the RIRC, grain production methods include planting intermediate wheatgrass (cv. Oahe) in mid-late August in rows spaced 7" apart. White clover is planted with the grass to help provide nitrogen to the stand. Grain is harvested with a small grain combine in mid-August of the following year, and each year thereafter. Grain yields at RIRC in the first year of production are around 500 lb./acre in Pennsylvania. In the Great Plains, first year seed yields are often 600-700 lb./acre. Grain yields decline in subsequent years. Appropriate management techniques can help reduce the yield decline. At RIRC, fields are grazed in October. This helps add nitrogen through manure and decreases thatch accumulation. Alternatively, stands of intermediate wheatgrass can be chiseled to rejuvenate sod-bound stands. This can have a dramatic positive effect on yield without jeopardizing the stand or subjecting it to erosion.
Due to reduced production costs, net profits can be realized at lower yield levels in a perennial as compared to an annual grain. Compared to wheat, yields of intermediate wheatgrass grain are low. However, if yields of 500-600 lb./acre can be maintained over the course of four to six years, the breakeven price of intermediate wheatgrass grain would be around 6/pound, approximately equal to that of wheat.
A breeding program was initiated to develop cultivars that maintain yields of at least 500 lb./acre-year. Germplasm supplied by USDA Plant Introduction Office in Pullman, Washington was evaluated at RIRC. High yielding, well adapted selections from this material are being used in a recurrent phenotypic selection program in collaboration with the Soil Conservation Service, Plant Materials Center in Big Flats, New York.
One of the first considerations of marketing is the name of the product. The name "intermediate wheatgrass" is too long and confusing, (intermediate to what?). Some consumers are familiar with sprouted wheat kernels sold in health food stores as "wheat grass." A new name was coined, "Wild Triga." The name triga was derived from Elytrigia, the scientific name for this species sometimes used in Europe.
Just as the seed industry has provided a basis for grain production techniques, it is providing the first supply of grain. There is already a seed industry developed to produce, condition, and market seed of intermediate wheatgrass for planting pastures, roadsides, mine sites, etc. During the seed cleaning process some of the seeds lose their hulls (lemma and palea). Seed companies prefer not to sell this naked seed for planting since it tends to lose its viability more quickly than hulled seeds. This naked seed has represented a loss to the seed companies, but can serve as a source of grain. Seed production techniques do not include pesticides. Den Besten Seed Co., Platt, South Dakota, is currently offering high quality grain for sale through mail order in quantities of one pound or more.
In order to take advantage of this supply of grain, a small market is being developed. Grain produced at the RIRC in experimental plots is being offered in half pound packages at the RIRC Bookstore and Gift Shop, where 20,000 visitors per year tour the Rodale research facility. In this way, consumers are becoming aware of the work to commercialize this perennial grain. Labels on the "Wild Triga" grain available in the RIRC Bookstore describe the health and environmental benefits of this perennial grain as well as provide recipes. The name and address of Den Besten Seed Co. is printed on each package so that consumers can purchase more "Wild Triga" grain.
An article about "Wild Triga" was carried in the May/June 1994 issue of Organic Gardening magazine. The article indicated that grain and seed for planting can be obtained. Consumer response has been very good, with Den Besten getting up to 50 requests per day. With this high demand, Den Besten Seed Co. has dehulled additional seed for sale as grain.
As with the development of any new crop, it is crucial to match supply with demand. At this point a small and growing demand is being developed through efforts of Rodale Institute and Rodale Press to promote consumer awareness. The supply is potentially sufficient to meet the current demand if seed companies like Den Besten are willing to dehull seeds for sale as high quality clean grain. Farmers who are currently growing intermediate wheatgrass for seed production will see that a new market is developing for their seed and will be stimulated to produce more seed for use as grain.
In addition, as land that was in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) comes into production, hopefully some of that land will be used for the production of intermediate wheatgrass "Wild Triga" grain. In this way, this highly erodible land will be maintained in a perennial grass that will both protect the soil from erosion and provide the farmer with a harvestable grain product.
Perennial Grain Research
Rodale Institute Research Center611 Siegfriedale RoadKutztown, PA 19530phone: 610/683-6383
S. Goodman and Sons, a family company, has been involved with the buying and selling of wild botanicals for four generations. We stress buying and selling botanicals rather than brokering since, for the most part, a broker arranges deals between two parties and usually does not put up any funds. On the other hand, our business is to actually buy the botanicals and sell them. We really own the material, while a broker does not. Semantics aside, the one constant is that everyone must find a buyer, and that is what we are trying to do.
Over the years, our company has dealt predominately with ginseng and goldenseal, although each year there are dozens of other botanicals that we regularly trade. There are approximately 200 salable botanicals; some of the
most traded items include black cohosh, blood root, Kansas and Missouri snake root, sassafras bark or root, sassafras leaves, slippery elm bark, star root, star grass, serpentaria, saw-palmetto berries, wild ginger, wild yam, and witch hazel leaves. These items are found throughout the United States from coast to coast and from north to south. Unlike ginseng, most of these items can be dug, bought, and sold year round. The desire to insure that ginseng would continue to be a renewable natural resource led the Federal Government to require all
ginseng producing states to set seasons regulating the digging, the buying, and the selling of ginseng.
Despite recent trends and interest in all botanicals, ginseng and goldenseal remain the dominant items in this market. These are also the two items found mostly in the Midwest. The procedures associated with the buying and selling of goldenseal are also those that are used in the trading of most other wild botanicals.
The marketing of botanicals is not a complicated affair. Although the accompanying chart may be a simplification, it does give the basic organization for the marketing process. Movement within the process may not always be as structured as in the chart because there are many exchanges among the parties. Within this structure, the concepts of price, quality, and reliability are important to all parties, but competitiveness with price is also fundamental. If everyone agrees to take the same price, the critical difference then becomes
What is quality? A product must be clean, free of dirt, debris, and litter, and it must be dry. It is essential that the roots come from mature plants. Quality difference can be huge. To produce a quality product takes time, and effort, and a willingness to achieve it.
An understanding of the market process would not be complete without the force that drives it all, i.e., demand. Demand for botanicals in general has been high for many years, but the demand for specific items is another story. Demand is often erratic and elusive. Sometimes an item is wanted, other times it is not. Often there is a keen interest in a particular commodity, and then it is forgotten. Or perhaps there is little interest. Then, a sudden desire for it occurs, and then, it, too, falls from favor. This is particularly true in recent years for mayapple and blood root. Demand for botanicals is difficult to predict.
Consistent demand for cultivated ginseng has supported the increased supply as production of cultivated ginseng has grown several times from what it was 10 years ago. The demand for goldenseal has also increased some, and cultivated production of goldenseal has grown somewhat. But today, both ginseng and goldenseal are under extreme pressure, and demand is weakening under the weight of overproduction.
Stephen L. GoodmanS. Goodman and Sons331 East Market StreetLouisville, KY 40202
*Based upon a presentation delivered during the 1994 Indiana Horticultural Congress "New Crops for the Heartland."
June 19-30, 1995
The second biennial training program in aromatic and medicinal plants will be sponsored by the Indiana Center for New Crops and Plant Products in collaboration with the College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois-Chicago.
This training program is sponsored by the Section of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS) and co-sponsored by Purdue University, the University of Massachusetts, and the Program for Collaborative Research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago in collaboration with the institutions of the visiting research scientists participating as instructors.
The program will focus on germplasm collection and preservation, crop production, processing, quality control, and marketing. This program is designed for agricultural scientists and officers, extension specialists and
agents, new crop researchers, industry representatives, governmental officers, graduate students, and private producers. Those seeking training in economic botany and in the pharmaceutical and industrial products areas will also find this two-week intensive course most beneficial.
The goals of this training program are to provide instruction in: the collection, preservation and propagation of native plants; germplasm evaluation, crop adaptability, domestication, and improvement; the development of suitable production, harvesting, processing, storage and packaging systems; development of quality control systems; economic assessments marketing surveys and international trade; marketing requirements: domestic and export perspectives; developing industrial-government-producer partnerships; and electronic information retrieval systems. Training will also be provided in aromatic and medical plant chemistry, biochemistry, extraction, and processing. Traditional style lectures combined with intensive discussions are complemented by laboratory, field, greenhouse, and computer sessions. Optional evening workshops on plant breeding, tissue culture, herbarium collections, botanical mounting, scientific writing for publication, and the Internet and electronic information searching are also featured. All programs will be in English.
For further information about the program, contact:
James E. Simon ,Purdue University, 1165 Horticulture Bldg.,West Lafayette, IN 47907-1165, phone: 765/494-1329 fax: 765/494-0391 e-mail: email@example.com
For further information about registration, contact:Tom Robertson Continuing Education, Purdue University,1586 Stewart Center,West Lafayette, IN 47907-1586, phone: 765/494-7220 fax: 765/494-0567
· J.A. Duke. 1983. Medicinal Plants of the Bible. Trado-Medic Books, Owerri, NY.
· J.A. Duke. 1985. Medicinal Plants of China. Reference Publications, Algonac, MI.
· J.A. Duke. 1989. Ginseng: A Concise Handbook. Reference Publications, Algonac, MI.
· J.A. Duke. 1987. Living Liqueurs. Quarterman Publications, Lincoln, MA.
· J.A. Duke. 1986. Handbook of Northeastern Indian Medicinal Plants. Quarterman Publications, Lincoln, MA.
· J.A. Duke. 1981. Handbook of Legumes of World Economic Importance. Plenum Press, NY.
· S. Foster. 1990. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants: Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
· J.A. Duke. 1973. Annotated Bibliography on Opium and Oriental Poppies and Related Species. USDA, Beltsville, MD.
· M. Potmesil and H.M. Pinedo. 1994. Camptothecins: New Anticancer Agents.
· S.A. Ghazanfar. 1994. Handbook of Arabian Medicinal Plants.
· M.W. Iwu. 1994. CRC Handbook of African Medicinal Plants.
· J.A. Duke and R Vasquez Martinez (eds.). 1994. Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary.
· J.A. Duke. 1992. CRC Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and Their Activities.
· J.A. Duke. 1986. CRC Handbook of Proximate Analysis Tables of Higher Plants.
· J.A. Duke. 1985. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs.
· J.A. Duke. 1992. CRC Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and Other Economic Plants.
· J.A. Duke. 1989. CRC Handbook of Nuts.
· Kee Chiang Huang. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs.
· R.O.B. Wijesekera. 1991. The Medicinal Plant Industry.
· J.A. Duke. 1992. Handbook of Edible Weeds.
· J.A. Duke. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops.
· J.A. Duke. 1987. CRC Handbook of Agricultural Energy Potential of Developing Countries.
· J.A. Duke and J. Meuninck. 1990. Trees, Shrubs, Nuts, and Berries.
· J. Meuninck and S. Philip. 1990. Cooking with Edible Flowers and Culinary Herbs.
· J.A. Duke and J. Meuninck. 1990. Edible Wild Plants.
The Australian New Crops Newsletter can be obtained by writing to:
Ian Wood, EditorI.M. Wood and Associates258 Bielly RoadKenmore Hills, Queensland 4069AustraliaFax: 07-378-5911
The 2nd issue contains articles on chickpea, pyrethrum, sandalwood, and nashi pear.
Information on hybrid grain millet can be obtained from:
AgraTech Seeds Inc. 244 Perimeter Center Parkway, NE Atlanta , GA 30346 1-800-841-8600
5559 N 500 W McCordsville, IN 46055 1-800-382-1733
1676 County Road 2200 East St Joseph, IL 61873 1-800-344-6333
David Brenner, North Central Region Plant Introduction Station Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011
Membership dues for the Amaranth Institute are $10/annum.
For more information write to:
Amaranth Institute c/o James Lehman PO Box 248 Bricelyn, MN 56014
The Second Annual Conference for New Specialty Crops Devoted to Midwestern Growers and Marketers will be held in conjunction with the Indiana Horticultural Congress, January 26, 1995 at the Adam's Mark Hotel, Indianapolis, Indiana.
A full day session will be devoted to new specialty crops. Topics to be covered include: herbs and medicinal plants, an update on ginseng and goldenseal, marketing, botanicals for the pet market, field production of flowers, crops for the Halloween market, marketing wild plants, and an update on the Indiana Center for New Crops and Plant Products at Purdue University.
Prior to the workshop, on the evening of January 25, 1995 (Wednesday), a special call out is being made to those interested in forming an Indiana Herb & Specialty Crop Association. This will be complemented by a round-table discussion on production and marketing.
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New Crops News
last updated Feb. 16, 1995