Arachis hypogaea L.
Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.
- Folk Medicine
- Yields and Economics
- Biotic Factors
- Chemical Analysis of Biomass Fuels
Seeds yield a non-drying, edible oil, used in cooking, margarines, salads,
canning, for deep-frying, for shortening in pastry and bread, and for
pharmaceuticals, soaps, cold creams, pomades and lubricants, emulsions for
insect control, and fuel for diesel engines. The oil cake, a high-protein
livestock feed, may be used for human consumption. Other products include
dyes, ice cream, massage oil, paints, and peanut milk. Seeds are eaten raw,
whole roasted and salted, or chopped in confectioneries, or ground into peanut
butter. Young pods may be consumed as a vegetable. Young leaves and tips are
suitable as a cooked green vegetable (Martin and Ruberte, 1975). Javanese use
the tips for lablab, and germinating seeds to make toge (Ochse, 1980).
Scorched seeds may serve as a coffee substitute. Peanut hulls are used for
furfural, fuel, as a filler for fertilizers, and for livestock feed, or
sweeping compounds. Foliage provides silage and forage. Hogs may glean the
fields following the harvester. Most U.S.A. production enters the peanut
butter (50%), salted peanuts (21%), and confectionery (16.5%) markets.
Elsewhere peanuts are processed mainly for oil (Duke, 1981a).
Duke and Wain (1981) cite folk useage for aphrodisiac, cholecystosis,
decoagulant (but see below), inflammation, and nephritis. Peanuts play a small
role in various folk pharmacopoeias. In China the nuts are considered
demulcent, pectoral, and peptic; the oil aperient and emollient, taken
internally in milk for gonorrhea, externally for rheumatism (Duke and Ayensu,
1985). In Zimbabwe the peanut is used in folk remedies for plantar warts.
Hemostatic and vasoconstrictor activity are reported (List and Horhammer,
19691979). The alcoholic extract is said to affect isolated smooth muscles
and frog hearts like acetylcholine. The alcoholic lipoid fraction of the seed
is said to prevent hemophiliac tendencies and for the treatment of some blood
disorders (mucorrhagia and arthritic hemorrhages) in hemophilia.
Shelled, uncooked, seeds are reported to contain approximately per 100 g: over
500 calories, 413 g moisture, 21.036.4 g protein, 35.854.2 g fat, 6.024.9 g
total carbohydrate, 1.24.3 g fiber, 1.83.1 g ash, 49 mg Ca, 409 mg P, 3.8 mg
Fe, 15 mg b-carotene equivalent, 0.79 mg thiamine, 0.14 mg riboflavin, 15.5
mg niacin, and 1 mg ascorbic acid. Roasted seeds contain in broad average
figures per 100 g: 595 calories, 1.8 g moisture, 23.2 g protein, 50.9 g fat,
21.7 g total carbohydrate, 3.2 g fiber, 2.4 g ash, 42 mg Ca, 354 mg P, 0.45 mg
thiamine, 0.11 mg riboflavin, and 15.3 mg niacin. Boiled seeds contain per 100
g: 235 calories, 44.6 g moisture, 16.8 g protein, 8.3 g fat, 26.3 g total
carbohydrate, 6.1 g fiber, 4.0 g ash, 45 mg Ca, 260 mg P, 5.1 mg Fe, 0.44 mg
thiamine, 0.16 mg riboflavin, and 1.4 mg niacin. Raw leaves contain per 100 g:
69 calories, 78.5 g moisture, 4.4 g protein, 0.6 g fat, 14.9 g total
carbohydrate, 4.6 g fiber, 1.6 g ash, 262 mg Ca, 82 mg P, 4.2 mg Fe, 7,735 mg
b-carotene equivalent, 0.23 mg thiamine, 0.58 mg riboflavin, 1.6 mg niacin,
and 98 mg ascorbic acid. The oilseed cake is said to be a good source of
arginine and glutamic acid, used in treating mental deficiencies (Perry, 1980).
Hager's Handbook (List and Horhammer, 19691979) states that seeds contain
2030% nitrogenous matter, 25% cellulose, 821% starch, a-cephalin,
xanthine, glutathione, D- and g-tocopherol, arginine, guanosine,
chorine, lecithin, saccharose, conglutin, conarachin, L-(-)-cystine, sarkosine,
biotin, thiamin, vitamin P, conenzyme A, a-ketoglutaric- and
g-methylent-a-ketoglutaric acid, traces of 4-methyleneproline,
allantoinase, phospholipase D, isocitratylase, fumarase, etc. Yoshida and
Hasegawa (1977) report 2.14 nmol/g atizolamine
(1-methyl-3-guanidino-6-hydroxymethylpyrazine-2-one) in the seeds. The testa
contains arachidoside, leucocyanadin, and leucodelphinidin. Analyses of the
haulms from South Africa showed 9.9% CP, 21.1% CP, 9.3% ash, 2.4% EE, 57.3%
NFE, 1.48% Ca, and 0.08% P. The testa (skins from India) contained 12.1% CP,
7.1% CF, 16.7% ash, 46.3% EE, 0.24% Ca, and 0.14% P. Hulls from Nigeria
contained 4.9% CP, 68.4% CF, 7.4% ash, 0.6% EE, and 18.7% NFE. The so-called
germ, a byproduct of the manufacture of peanut butter contains 3.0% CP, 2.0%
CF, 3.0% ash, 46.0% EE, and 46.0% NFE, all these on a zero-moisture basis
Of greatest concern is possible contamination of damaged or spoiled seeds with
the teratogenic, carcinogenic aflatoxins. Two principal toxins, aflatoxins B,
and G, and their less toxic dihydro derivatives, aflatoxins B2 and G2 are
formed by the aflatoxin producing moulds (Aspergillus flavus et al).
Prevention of mould growth is the mainstay, there being no satisfactory way to
remove the toxins from feed and foods (however, peanut oils are free of
aflatoxins because of alkaline processing). LD50 for aflatoxin for sensitive
organisms may be less than 1 mg/kg body weight. "Aflatoxin B1 appears to be
the most potent hepatocarcinogen known." Rats receiving only 15 ppm aflatoxin
in the diet have high cancer incidence (NAS, 1973). Arachin, with 4 antigens
and conarachin with 2 antigens are also reported.
Annual ascending (Guaranian and sequential Peruvian) to somewhat longer-lived
ascending, decumbent, or prostrate (Bolivian and Amazonan), geocarpic, glabrate
to hirsute herbs with upright main or n-axes. Tap root with four series of
spirally arranged lateral roots with abundant branching and usually heavily
supplied with nodules. Root tip without epidermis and without root liars.
Leaves stipulate, pinnate with two opposite pairs of leaflets, alternately
arranged in a 2/5 phyllotaxy on main axis; distichous on higher order branches.
Flowers pea-like, enclosed between two bracts, one simple, subtending a very
short peduncle, the other bifid, subtending the pedicel; sessile, but appear to
be stalked after growth of a tubular hypanthium just before anthesis. The
ovary is surrounded by the base of the hypanthium (perigynous), on the distal
end of which are inserted two calyx lobes, one awl-like opposite the keel and
the other broad and four-notched opposite the back of the standard. Petals,
orange, yellow, cream or rarely white; inserted between the calyx lobes and
ttle fused bases of the anther filaments (staminal column). The standard is
orange with red veins marking the more yellow central face or brick-red by
extension of the red veined area. Wings yellow, or yellow at base and orange
apically, to brick-red; keel colorless to faintly yellow, clasping the staminal
column and bending at right angles with it about halfway along its length.
Stamens 10, sterile filaments usually 2, anthers 8 (sometimes 9, rarely 10), 4
globose, uniloculate, alternating with 4 oblong, 3 of which are biloculate and
1, opposite the standard, uniloculate. The tip of the ovary, bearing from 15
ovules, grows out from between the floral bracts, bearing with it the dried
petals, calyx lobes and hypanthium; creating a unique floral stucturethe peg.
The peg quickly turns down toward the soil and thrusts its tip with its ovules
several centimeters into the soil where the tip turns horizontally and develops
into the pod. Fruit, an indehiscent legume up to 10 cm long; seeds 15, from
less than 1 cm long x 0.5 cm thick to 3.5 cm x 1.5 cm weighing less than weight
less than 0.2 g to over 2.0 g. Testa thin, colors pink, red, purple, tan,
brown, yellow, white or red and white, pink and white, brown and white, purple
and white, or marked with small purple dashes or splashes on a base color.
Flowering under 30 days to over 40 days. Fruit matures 90150+ days.
(2n = 4x = 40). Self-pollinating, occasionally outcrossed by bees
With 15 to 70 species, the peanut genus has its center of diversity in the
Matto Grosso of Brazil. Most species are diploid (2x = 2n = 20).
Annual species are more characteristic and tolerant of semiarid areas,
perennials of humid high-rainfall areas. Peanuts are quite tolerant of acid
soils, and aluminum, requiring a minimum of lime for acceptable yields (Duke,
1982). Over 4,000 entries in the germplasm bank in the United States have
arisen from the Guaranian (Spanish, Valencia, Natal Common, Barberton, Manyema,
Tatu, Pollachi and numerous other locally named cvs), the Bolivian and Amazonan
(Virginia Bunch, Virginia and Georgia Runners, Matevere, Overo, Mani Pintado,
etc.) and Peruvian (Tinga Maria, Chinese) gene centers and their extensions
into North America, Africa, Europe and Asia. Cultivar distinction within
botanical cvs is based on pod and seed. In addition to the cultivated peanut,
there are wild Arachis species known to be cross-compatible with
cultivated peanuts and known to possess resistance to pests and diseases,
including early and late leafspot and spidermites. Cultivars resistant to
diseases: 'Schwarz 21', resistant to slime disease, Pseudomonas
solanacearum; 'Tarapota' and PI's 314817 and 315608, resistant to rust,
Puccinis arachidis; INC 3033', resistant to black rot,
Cylindrocladium crotalariae; I.R.H.O. Nos. 56-369 and 'H32', resistant
to rosette virus; Valencia PI's 337394F and 337409, resistant to Aspergillus
flavus; 'Tarapoto' and PI 109839, resistant to early leafspot,
Cercospora arachidicola; NC 2, resistant to stem rot, Sclerotium
rolfsii; PI's 295233 and 290606 resistant to lesion nematode,
Pratylenchus brachyurus; and 'Natal Common' and 'Kumawu Erect',
resistant to root knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria. Cultivars
resistant to insects: 'Southeastern Runner 56-15', resistant to fall armyworm,
Spodoptora frugiperda; 'NC 6', resistant to the southern corn rootworm,
Diabroctica undecimpunctata howardi; 'Spancross' to leaf feeding; 'NC
10247', 'NC 102721, INC 15729' and 'NC 157451, resistant to the potato
leaf-hopper, Empoasca fabae. Assigned to the South American and African
Centers of Diversity, peanut or cvs thereof is reported to exhibit tolerance to
aluminum, disease, drought, frost, fungus, high pH, heat, insects, laterite,
limestone, low pH, sand, smog, savanna, ultraviolet, and virus (2n = 40)
Native to South America; now widely cultivated in warm countries throughout the
world. Introduced in pre-Columbian times to West Indies and Mexico, in early
post-Columbian times to Africa and eastern Asia and during the colonial period
to Atlantic North America. Known only in cultivation (Duke, 1981a).
Suitable for tropics, subtropics and warm temperate regions, grown from 40°S
to 40°N latitude. Growing period 3 1/25 months ('Chico' matures in 80 days
in South Texas). Frost sensitive. Thrives with 5 dm water in the growing
season with most in mid-one-third of season. Grows on light, friable,
well-drained sandy loams, but will grow in heavier soils. Ranging from Cool
Temperate Moist through Tropical Thorn to Wet Forest Life Zones, peanut is
reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 3.1 to 41.0 dm (mean of 162 cases
13.8 dm), annual mean temperature of 10.5°C to 28.5°C (mean of 161 cases
23.5°C), and pH of 4.3 to 8.7 (mean of 90 cases = 6.5) (Duke, 1981a).
All commercial peanuts are propagated from seed. Virginia-type (alternately
branched) peanuts have a dormancy period; Spanish-Valencia types (sequentially
branched) have little or no seed dormancy. Seedbed should be prepared, either
on the flat, or widely ridged. Seed often treated with antifungal dressing
before planting. In countries of advanced agriculture, peanuts are often grown
in monoculture and by mechanized means. In many countries they are cultivated
by hand and sometimes in mixed culture. The spacing and seed rate vary with
growth rate vary with growth habit and production methods. Stands of 250,000
plants per hectare are sought in machine-drilled planting. For types planted
by hand, however, much lower seed rates may be used. Weeds are controlled by
cultivation and by pre- and post-planting applications of selective herbicides.
Responses to N applied early are common and large in short season cvs in
semi-arid regions of West Africa. Phosphorous (P) is added on tropical red
earths but less on temperate sandy soils on which other crops in the rotation
receive P fertilizer. Roots and fruits absorb nutrients. Calcium (Ca) supply
in the pegging zone is essential for high yield of good quality peanuts in
large-podded, alternate types. Seeds produced on Ca-deficient soil often have
poor germination and poor seedling growth. In tropical red soils of Africa,
addition of S may be beneficial (Duke, 1981a).
Although flowering may commence in 30 days, 80150 days or more are required
for fruit maturation. In hand-harvest plants are pulled up and turned over on
the ground or stacked or placed on racks to cure. Pods are picked and allowed
to complete drying in depths of 5 cm or less on trays, or spread in the sun in
the dry season tropics. In case of fully mechanized harvesting a single
operation pulls up, inverts and windrows the plants where they remain a few
days for preliminary drying. The pods are removed by combine machines and
elevated into baskets attached to the combine or blown directly into trailing
"drying wagons" which when full may be towed to a drying station where warm or
ambient air is forced through the load of peanuts. In Argentina the combines
pick and shell the pods in one operation so that the crop is marketed as dried
seeds instead of dried pods.
Yields have increased remarkably in the United States and other countries since
1951 and now range from 2000 to 6000 kg/ha. Woodruff (1981) notes experimental
yields up to 7,000 kg/ha. Yields with poorer conditions and cvs range from
4001500 kg/ha. Shelling percentage: 7580% (sequenial types) and 6080%
(alternate types). World production in 1975 from 19,384,000 hectares was
19,117,000 MT (with shell) averaging 986 kg/ha. Asia produced 11,128,000 MT,
averaging 866 kg/ha. Africa produced 5,116,000 MT, averaging 743 kg/ha. North
America produced 1,936,000 MT, averaging 2,559 kg/ha; South America, 879,000
MT, averaging 1,128 kg/ha; Oceania, 35,000 MT averaging 1,228 kg/ha and Europe,
23,000 MT averaging 2,202 kg/ha. India was the highest production country
with 6,600,000 MT; China second with an estimated 2,791,000 MT; U.S. third with
1,750,000 MT; Senegal fourth with 1,130,000 MT and South Africa fifth with
1,100,000 MT. In 1979, the world low production yield was 400 in Mozambique,
international production yield 1,016, and the world high production yield was
3,783 in Malaysia (FAO, 1980a). Bogdan (1977) reports DM yields of 4.5, 5.1,
3.9 and 2.8 MT/ha respectively, 87, 94, 101, and 108 days after sowing. These
yields could be trebled in those areas of the tropics where three crops could
be grown per year.
Ratnam (1979) found harvest indices ranging from 2047% in bunch types, 1231%
in semi-spreading types, and 1022% in spreading types. This suggests that
total DM yields may be from 210 times higher than conventional seed yields.
This DM may be used for fodder or fuel. Woodruff (1981) notes that maximum
U.S. yields may be 65007000 kg/ha associated with 910 MT DM for hay or soil
enrichment (or energy production) and 0.30.4 MT dry N-fixing roots per
hectare. Peanut residues include the total haulm, often calculated from a
harvest index of 1:2. The shell is estimated to constitute 3548% of the total
weight of the harvested peanut, the skin (testa) 4% of the seed or "nut" (Wu
Leung et al, 1972). However, in India, the husks are considered to represent
2032% of the weight, averaging 30%. Husks are largely crude fiber (to 60%),
lignin and pentosans. Peanut oil is the cheapest and most extensively used
vegetable oil in India (CSIR, 1948), and has also been used for fuel and
illumination. According to WOI, the calorific value is 549 cals/100 g (five
times that of beef). However, if energy is the target, it seems highly
improbable that peanut oil yields will ever compare with oil palm yields.
Haulms constitute good fodder, silage or green manure (CSIR, 1948). Fodder
yields may run 27 MT/ha (Bogdan, 1977). In Georgia, peanut oil "is the best
emergency fuel." Of its many advantages, availability is most important. One
University of Georgia tractor runs on 100% peanut oil, while two University of
Georgia busses operate 8 hours a day on a 30% mixture of peanut oil and diesel
fuel. Peanut oil can be made on the farm with a sheller, a press, and a little
time to let the gum settle to the bottom of the tank. Currently, peanut oil
sells for twice the price of diesel. If farmers grew energy peanuts, they
could probably produce 150 gallons of oil per acre (ca 9 barrels per hectare)
and would have a welcome outlet for peanuts contaminated by aflo toxins (Anon,
1981a). As of June 15, peanut oil was $0.38/lb., compared to $1.39 for
poppyseed oil, $0.65 for tung oil, $0.33 for linseed oil, $0.275 for coconut
oil, $0.265 for cottonseed oil, $0.232 for corn oil, $0.21 for soybean oil
(Chemical Marketing Reporter, June 15, 1981). At $2.00 per gallon, gasoline is
roughly $0.25/lb. In North Carolina, Harwood (1981) concluded, "Peanuts are an
unlikely candidate for on-farm production of vegetable oil" because they have
to be dehulled prior to processing and the hulls might present a disposal
problem (why not use them to fuel the dehulling process?). Further, Harwood
adds that peanuts should be segregated into edible and low grade nuts to obtain
full value from the crop. These processes are performed in large plants and
are not amenable to small on-farm production and processing. Furthermore,
peanut was relatively more expensive than cottonseed and soybean oi; relative
to diesel over a 15 year period, ranging from 2.59.5 times as expensive as
diesel. But Harwood also states, "In March, 1981, diesel fuel cost farmers
$1.26 per gallon, soybean oil cost $1.96 per gallon, cottonseed oil $2.14 per
gallon, sunflower oil $2.29 per gallon, and peanut oil $2.89 per gallon."
For a rather monotonous listing of major pests and pathogens of peanut, see
Duke (1981a). Fungal diseases include: Ascochoyta arachidis
(leaf-spot), Aspergillus flavus (yellow mold), A. niger (crown
rot), A. pulvarulentus (crown rot), Botrytis cinerea (blight),
Cercospora arachidicola (early leafspot), Cercosporidium
personatum (late leafspot), C. canescens, Colletotrichum arachidis
(anthracnose), C. dematium (anthracnose), C. mangenoti
(anthracnose), Diplodia arachidis (collar rot), D. gossypina
(collar rot), Dothiorella arachidis (stem disease), Fusarium
moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. roseum, F. solani var. martii,
Leptosphaerulina crassiasca (pepper spot and leaf scorch), Macrophomina
phaeoli (wilt, root rot, and stem rot), Oidium arachidis (powdery
mildew), Pestalotiopsis arachidis (leafspot), Phyllosticta
arachidis and Ph. hypogaeae (leafspot), Puccinia arachidis
(rust), Pythium debaryanum (pod rot), P. myriotylum (pod rot),
P. ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani (root rot), Rhizopus arrhizus, R.
oryzae, R. stolonifer, Rhizoctonia solani (all cause seed and preemergence
seedling rot), Sclerotinia arachidis, S. minor (root and pod rot), S.
sclerotiorum (root and pod rot), Sclerotium rolfsii (stem rot),
Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum (wilt and pod rot),
Sphaceloma arachidis (scab), Cylindrocladium crotalariae (black
rot of roots, pegs and pods), Phomopsis sojae (leaf and stem diseases),
Diaporthe sojae, Phomopsiodes arachidis (stem diseases), Chalara
elegans (black hull), Phoma arachidicola (web blotch),
Cristulariella pyramidalis (zonate leafspot). Some strains of
Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, soilborne
pathogens, may enter pods and kernels and produce toxic and carcinogenic
aflatoxins. Bacterial diseases: Bacterium solanacearum, Phytomonas
solanacearum, Xanthomonas solanacearum, Pseudomanas solanacearum, and brown
bacterial leafspot. Viruses: abutilon mosaic, alfalfa mosaic, bean chlorotic
ringspot, bean mosaic, bean necrosis, bean yellow mosaic, Brazilian tobacco
streak, bunchy plant, chlorotic rosette, Euphorbia mosaic, Kromnek disease,
leaf curl, marginal chlorosis, mosaic rosette, ringspot and mottle,
Arachis virus I, rugose leafcurl, tobacco mosaic, southern sunnhemp
mosaic, tomato spotted wilt, turnip mosaic, white clover mosaic and witches'
broom, peanut stunt. Bud necrosis (TSWV) is serious disease in India and
rosette can be devastating in Africa. Nematodes: Belonolaimus
longicaudatus, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, Pratylenchus brachyurus. Of
lesser importance are: Aphasmatylenchus straturratus, Aphelenchoides
arachidis, Criconemella spp., Helicotylenchus spp.,
Hemicycliohora spp., Hoplolaimus spp., Longidorus spp.,
Meloidogyne javanica, Pratylenchus spp., Radopholus similes,
Scutellonema spp., Telotylenchus spp., Trichodorus spp.,
Tylenchorhynchus spp., and Xiphinema spp. Insects: (1) Soil
insects: lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus Zeller;
southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barker
and also D. balteata; whitefringed beetles, Graphognathus spp.;
burrowing bug, Panageaus bilineatus Say and P. congruus; white
grub, Strigoderma arbicola Fabricius; bahiagrass borer, Derobrachus
brevicollis Audinet-Serville; and wireworms Conoderus, Melanotus,
Heteroderes and Cebrio. (2) Foliage insects: corn earworm,
Heliothis zea Boddie; tobacco budworm, H. virescens Fabricius;
fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith; beet armyworm, S.
exigua Hubner; granulate cutworm, Agrotis subterranea (Fabricius);
velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner; rednecked
peanutworm, Stegasta bosqueella Chambers; the salt marsh caterpillar,
Estigmene acrea; green cloverworm, Platypena scabra Fabricius;
cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni Hubner; tobacco thrips, Frankliniella
fusca Hinds; potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris; threecornered
alfalfa hopper, Spissistilus festinus Say; and the arachnid spidermites,
Tetranychus urticae, T. cinnabarinus and T. desertorum
Koch. (3) Storage insects: Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella
Hubner; Mediterranean flour moth, Anagasta kuehniella Zeller; almond
moth, Cadra cautella Walker (Ephestis); sawtoothed grain beetle,
Oryzaephilus surinamensis L.; red flour beetle, Tribolium
castaneum Herbst; and the confused flour beetle, T. confusum
(duVal). Other insects: Aphis craccivora Koch vector of rosette and
other viruses (worldwide), Holotrichia sp., white grubs (India),
Amsacta sp. (India), Peridontopyge, Entermes, Anoplocnemis and
Halticus (Senegal). Dicotyledonous parasites: Alectra abyssinica, A.
senegalensis var. arachidis, A. vogelii, Striga
asiatica, S. gesneriodies, S. hermonthica, S. lutea
and S. senegalensis. Weeds: Ageratum conyzoides, Cenchrus echinatus,
Cynodon dac, tylon, Cyperus rotundus, Digitaria longiflora, Digitaria
sanguinalis, Echinochloa colonum, Eleusine indica, Portulaca oleracea,
Rottboellia exaltata, Setaria pallidefusca, Sorghum halepense, Tribulus
terrestris, and Tridax procumbens
Analysing 62 kinds of biomass for heating value, Jenkins and Ebeling (1985)
reported a spread of 18.64 to 17.53 MJ/kg, compared to l3.76 for weathered rice
straw to 23.28 MJ/kg for prune pits. On a % DM basis, the hulls contained
73.02% volatiles, 5.89% ash, 21.09% fixed carbon, 45.77% C, 5.46% H, 39.56% O,
1.63% N, 0.12% S, and undetermined residue.
Complete list of references for Duke, Handbook of Energy Crops
- Anon. 1981a. Most Oil Crops Potential Fuel Source. Crops and Soils Mag.
- Bogdan, A.V. 1977. Tropical pasture and fodder plants. Longman, London.
- C.S.I.R. (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research). 19481976. The wealth
of India. 11 vols. New Delhi.
- Duke, J.A. 1981a. Handbook of legumes of world economic importance. Plenum
- Duke, J.A. 1982a. Plant germplasm resources for breeding of crops adapted to
marginal environments. chap. 12. In: Christiansen, M.N. and Lewis, C.F. (eds.),
Breeding plants for less favorable environments. Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley
& Sons. New York.
- Duke, J.A. and Ayensu, E.S. 1985. Medicinal plants of China. Reference
Publications, Inc. Algonac, MI.
- Duke, J.A. and Wain, K.K. 1981. Medicinal plants of the world. Computer index
with more than 85,000 entries. 3 vols.
- FAO. 1980a. 1979. Production yearbook. vol. 33. FAO, Rome.
- Gohl, B. 1981. Tropical feeds. Feed information summaries and nutritive values.
FAO Animal Production and Health Series 12. FAO, Rome.
- Harwood, H.J. 1981. Vegetable oils as an on the farm diesel fuel substitute:
The North Carolina Situation. RTI Final Report FR-41U-1671-4. Research Triangle
Park, North Carolina.
- Jenkins, B.M. and Ebeling, J.M. 1985. Thermochemical properties of biomass
fuels. Calif. Agric. 39(5/6):1416.
- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L. 19691979. Hager's handbuch der pharmazeutischen
praxis. vols 26. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
- Martin, F.W. and Ruberte, R.M. 1975. Edible leaves of the tropics. Antillian
College Press, Mayaguez.
- N.A.S. 1973. Toxicants occurring naturally in foods. National Academy of
Sciences, Washington, DC.
- Ochse, J.J. 1931. Vegetables of the Dutch East Indies. Reprinted 1980. A. Asher
& Co., B.V. Amsterdam.
- Perry, L.M. 1980. Medicinal plants of east and southeast Asia. MIT Press,
- Ratnam, N.N. 1979. Dry matter production and harvest index trends in groundnut
(Arachis hypogaea L.). Madras Agr. J. 66(4):218221.
- Yoshida, T. and Hasegawa, M. 1977. Distribution of stizolamine in some
leguminous plants. Phytochemistry 16(1):1312.
- Woodruff, J.G. (ed.). 1973. Peanuts: production, processing, products. AVI
Publ. Co., Inc., Westport, CT.
- Woodruff, J.G. 1981. Peanuts Arachis hypogaea. In: McClure, T.A. and
Lipinsky, E.S. (eds.), CRC handbook of biosolar resources. vol. II. Resource
materials. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
- Wu Leung, Woot-Tsuen, Butrum, R.R., and Chang, F.H. 1972. Part I. Proximate
composition mineral and vitamin contents of east Asian foods. In: Food
composition table for use in east Asia. FAO & U.S. Dept. HEW.
Last update December 29, 1997