Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh.
Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.
- Folk Medicine
- Yields and Economics
- Biotic Factors
Heavy even-textured wood used for poles and ribs of boats. Bark yields a brown
dye. Leaves are used for camel fodder around the Red Sea. Branches are lopped
and fed to cattle in India and Australia.
According to Lewis and Elvin-Lewis (1977), the tree possesses a bitter aromatic
juice, used as an abortive in tropical Africa and Asia. Root and bark are used
as aphrodisiac, the wood for snakebite, the aqueous extract of the seed for
sores. Unripe fruits are poulticed onto wounds and leaves onto skin ailments
(List and Horhammer, 19691979).
Bark and roots contain tannin, the bark with lapachol (C15H14O3) the compound
supposedly responsible for the overblown virtues of "lapacho" (Tabebuia
spp. from Brazil).
Lapachol is an allergic sensitizer.
Evergreen shrub or small tree 110 m high, trunk to 40 cm in diameter.
Numerous upright pneumatophores 1015 cm high and 6 mm in diameter. Trunk
often with masses of small air roots but no prop or stilt roots. Bark whitish
to grayish or yellow-green, smooth, often powdery with raised dots, scaly,
exposing greenish inner bark. Leaves opposite, ovate, lanceolate to
elliptical, 3.512 cm long, 1.55 cm wide, mostly acute at both ends, entire,
thick leathery, shiny green and hairless upper surface, pale whitish-gray and
finely hairy underneath. Petiole 510 mm long, hairy. Heads or cymes
ball-like, upright on long stalks at ends and sides of twigs. Flowers few to
many, sessile, 4 mm long, 5 mm across. Calyx 5-lobed, green, hairy,
persistent; corolla tubular, white.turning yellow or orange with 4 nearly
equal, short lobes (Little, 1983).
Reported from the African, Australian, Indonesian-Indochina Centers of
Diversity, grey mangrove, or cvs thereof, is reported to tolerate
disease,insects, light frost, pests, salt waterlogging (NAS, 1980a; Little,
1983). Little mentions five varieties, differing in leaf, flower, and
Coasts of East and South Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and Oceania. From
Egypt and Arabia along shores of Red Sea and western Indian Ocean, eastward
along shores of Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, southeastern and eastern Indian
Ocean, South China Sea north to Hong Kong and Taiwan, and islands of the
Philippine Sea, Coral Sea, and South Pacific to Western Australia and New
Zealand. Not widely introduced (Little, 1983).
Estimated to range from Tropical Moist to Wet through Subtropical Moist to Wet
Forest Life Zones, grey mangrove is estimated to tolerate annual precipitation
of 10 to 45 dm, annual temperature of 17 to 26°C, and pH of 6 to 8.5. Often
a pioneer in muddy areas, this species, intolerant of shade, cannot succeed
itself. Mostly on saline silts of depositing shores and marshes (Little, 1983).
According to the NAS (1980a), planting is usually not needed because natural
regeneration is so successful. In Avicennia and Rhizophora,
direct seeding results in ca 90% survival.
Since this mangrove can regrow rapidly from buds beneath the bark along the
trunk and branches, it is said to suffer little from removal of much of the
branchwood (NAS, 1980a).
This small tree could not be quite so productive as other mangroves, though I
estimate 10 MT/ha year is possible.
Used for firewood and fuel for lime kilns.
No data uncovered.
Complete list of references for Duke, Handbook of Energy Crops
- Lewis, W.H. and Elvin-Lewis, M.P.F. 1977. Medical botany. John Wiley &
Sons, New York.
- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L. 19691979. Hager's handbuch der pharmazeutischen
praxis. vols 26. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
- Little, E.L. Jr. 1983. Common fuelwood crops: a handbook for their
identification. McClain Printing Co., Parsons, WV.
- N.A.S. 1980a. Firewood crops. Shrub and tree species for energy production.
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
Last update December 30, 1997