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Casuarina junghuhnianaMiq.

Jemara (Indonesian)

Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.

  1. Uses
  2. Folk Medicine
  3. Chemistry
  4. Description
  5. Germplasm
  6. Distribution
  7. Ecology
  8. Cultivation
  9. Harvesting
  10. Yields and Economics
  11. Energy
  12. Biotic Factors
  13. References


Introduced to Zimbabwe for street and roadside plantings and windbreaks, the species may help solve the fuelwood shortage. Introduced to Thailand around 1900 as an ornamental tree, now extensively used to reclaim land abandoned after mining, as well as for village firewood production. It was taken from Thailand to India ca 1970 for fuel for the tea-drying industry.

Folk Medicine

No data uncovered.


No data uncovered.


Tree to 35 m tall, 1 m DBH, the stem rather straight, the crown often symmetrically conical.


Reported from the Indochina-Indonesia Center of Diversity, jemara, or cvs thereof, is reported to tolerate clay, drought, monsoon, poor soil, salt, sand, screes, and weeds.


Native to highlands of eastern Indonesia—to East Java, Bali, and the lesser Sunda Islands, where it occurs in extensive pure stands on mountain summits. It pioneers the natural revegetation of deforested grassland, volcanic ash and sand, gravelly stream beds, and screes. In manmade grassland it has extended its area manyfold, at the cost of mixed mountain forest and scrub-forest that formerly prevailed. Introduced to Thailand around 1900 (NAS, 1983e).


There are commercial plantings in salt marsh areas, sometimes inundated with saline water (NAS, 1983e), but in its native habitat it ranges up to 3,000 m. It is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 7 to 15 dm.


Propagated by cuttings in India and Thailand. Cuttings allow the perpetuation of superior traits, and also allow plantings of a single sex, avoiding weed potential through the spread of natural seedlings (NAS, 1983e). In India, clusters of shoots (sprigs) are dipped in rooting hormone (or not) and placed in a humid atmosphere, e.g. a sealed plastic tent in light shade under coconut. Rooting in about 20 days, they can be outplanted. Can be propagated by coppice or root sprouts as well. Inoculation may be necessary.


Based on experience with other species, I suspect that seed bearing age is 4–5 years and flowering peaks from April–June, fruiting from September–December. Good seed crops occur annually (Ag. Handbook 450). Timber can be harvested as needed. Litter and firewood may be gathered as the accumulation justifies.

Yields and Economics

No data available.


As with other Casuarina spp.

Biotic Factors

As with other Casuarina spp.


Complete list of references for Duke, Handbook of Energy Crops
Last update Tuesday, December 30, 1997