Eucalyptus camaldulensis Schlecht.
Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.
- Folk Medicine
- Yields and Economics
- Biotic Factors
- Chemical Analysis of Biomass Fuels
Important timber, firewood, shelter belt, and honey tree. In the Sudan, it is
planted to protect crops from blowing sands. The wood, durable, easy to saw,
yet resistant to termites, is widely used in Australia for strong durable
construction, interior finish, flooring, cabinetry, furniture, fenceposts,
cross-ties, sometimes pulpwood. Australian aborigines made canoes from the
bark. Survivalists in Australia and elsewhere might learn how the aborigines
obtained water from the superficial roots, usually those ca 3 cm in diameter.
The roots were excavated or lifted to the soil surface. Then the root was cut
into segments ca 45 cm long, debarked, held vertically, and blown into, the
water then draining into the receptacle provided.
Reported to be anesthetic, antiseptic, astringent, the redgum eucalyptus is a
folk remedy for colds, colic, coughs, diarrhea, dysentery, hemorrhage,
laryngalgia, laryngitis, pharyngitis, sore throat, spasm, trachalgia, and
wounds (Duke and Wain, 1981).
Leaves contain 0.10.4% essential oil, 77% of which is cineol There is some
cuminal, phellandrene, aromadendren (or aromadendral), and some
valerylaldehyde, geraniol, cymene, and phellandral (C.S.I.R., 19481976).
Leaves contain 511% tannin. The kino contains 45% kinotannic acid as well as
kino red, a glucoside, catechol, and pyrocatechol. Leaves and fruits test
positive for flavonoids and sterols. The bark contains 2.516% tannin, the
wood 214%, and the kino 46.276.7% (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962).
Large evergreen tree 2440(-50) m high with stout trunk often short and
crooked, to 2 m in diameter; crown open, widely spreading, irregular. Bark
smoothish, white, gray, or buff. Twigs reddish, long, slender, angled,
drooping. Trunk can form air roots. Root system deep and spreading. Leaves
alternate, drooping, narrowly lanceolate, 822 cm long, 12 cm wide, often
curved or sickle-shaped, tapering to long point, short-pointed at base, entire
glabrous, dull pale green on both surfaces or occasionally grayish. Umbels
single at leaf base, ca 2.5 cm long on slender stalk 619 mm long. Flowers
510, each on slender stalk 512 mm long from ovoid buds 610 mm long, 45 mm
wide. Stamens many, threadlike, white, 56 mm long; anthers with small round
gland. Pistil with inferior, long-pointed, 34-celled ovary and long, stout
style. Capsules several, clustered, hemiglobose or ovoid, 78 mm long, 56 mm
wide, light brown, with wide raised disk and 34 prominent triangular teeth
almost 2 mm long. Seeds many, tiny, 1.5 mm long, light brown (Little, 1983).
Reported from the Australian Center of Diversity, redgum eucalyptus, or cvs
thereof, is reported to tolerate alkali, drought, fire, light frost, heat, high
pH, poor soil, salt, savanna, and waterlogging. It is rather intolerant of
weeds. The NAS catalogs four outstanding provenances, 'Katherine' and
'Petford' for tropical climates, 'Lake Albacutya' for Mediterranean climates,
and 'Broken Hill' for arid climates. Some Provenances can tolerate -5°C and
up to 20 frosts per year. (2n = 22)
This is said to be the most widely distributed eucalypt, ranging over 23°
lat. in most of arid and semiarid Australia but not the humid eastern and
southwestern coasts. It is regarded as one of the most widely planted
eucalypts in the world (ca 500,000 ha planted) (NAS, 1980a). Plantations occur
in Argentina, Arizona, California, Egypt, Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan,
Senegal, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Upper Volta, Uruguay,
Ranges from tropical through subtropical and warm temperate, and from arid to
semiarid. Tolerates temperatures from 3° to 5°C in winter with 050
frosts according to locality. Annual rainfall from minimum of about 250625 mm
to as high as 10001250 mm (Little, 1983). In Duke's ecogeographic data base,
redgum eucalyptus is estimated to range from Tropical Thorn Forest to Dry
through Warm Temperate Desert to Dry Forest Life Zones, and is reported to
tolerate annual precipitation of 10.3 to 20.6 dm (mean of 9 cases = 15.9) and
annual temperature of 18.0 to 26.6°C (mean of 9 cases = 24.7). It is
reported in areas with only 2 dm rainfall, but the lower limit for commercial
plantations is 4 dm. Some provenances tolerate many different soil conditions,
high calcium, high salt, periodic waterlogging. Occasionally pure stands may
develop naturally along flood plains and stream banks. The mean maximum
temperature of the warmest month where it grows well is ca 29°C. The dry
season lasts 48 mos or more and may be severe. Frosts are rare (520 days/yr)
(Mariani et al., 1981).
Seeds, long lived when sealed in dry cold storage, are usually started in
nursery containers, then transplanted to the field (as close as 2 x 2 m for
firewood). Extensive weeding may be mandatory. During the seedling stage,
this species develops gall-like structures, at least in the Philippines, which
offer resistance to drought and fire (Agpaoa, 1980).
Some provenances coppice well for six or more rotations, on good sites,
plantations are managed on coppice rotations of 710 years.
According to NAS (1980a), annual wood yields or 2025 m3/ha in
Argentina, 30 m3 from Israel, 1720 from Turkey in the first
rotation, and 2530 in subsequent coppice rotations. On poor arid sites,
yields are only 211 m3 (ca 15 cords) on 14 or 15 year rotations.
Litterfall ran about 3.65.8 MT/ha/yr in an Australian redgum swamp (Briggs and
According to the phytomass files (Duke, 1981b), standing biomass in an Israeli
plantation is ca 110 MT/ha. At Calistoga, California, this was calculated to
yield 4.3 m3/ha/yr or 2 cords and total energy yields of 15,000,000
kcal/ha/yr (Standiford and Donaldson, 1982). "As firewood, the timber from
Eucalyptus camaldulensis has few equals. It is also a good charcoal
wood, and the steel industry in Argentina, for example, relies on its charcoal
for steel-making. The fuel value of the wood (sp. grav. 0.6) is 4,800 kcal/kg.
In World War II, Australians used the charcoal for their producer gas plants."
According to Browne (1968), the following affect Eucalyptus
camaldulensis: (Bacteria) Agrobacterium tumefaciens. (Fungi)
Cercospora eucalypti, Corticium salmonicolor, Fomes setulosus, Gymnopilus
junonius, Hypholoma fasiculare, Inonotus chondromyelus, Polyporus portentosus,
Sclerotinia fuckeliana. (Angio-spermae) Tapinanthus sp.
(Coleoptera) Alcidodes biangulatus, A. haemopterus, Anaemerus tomentosus,
Apate monachus, Chrysolagria neavei, Dicasticus affinis, Gonipterus
scutellatus, Opseotrophus sufflatus, Phoracantha recurve, P. semipunctata,
Siderodactylus sagittarius, Sinoxylon transvaalense, Systates pollinosus,
Xyleborus truncatus. (Hemiptera) Agonoscelis pubescens, Atelocera
stictica. (Hymenoptera) Perga affinis, Phylacteophaga eucalypti.
(Isoptera) Ancistrotermes amphidon, Odontotermes feae. (Lepidoptera)
Archips occidentalis, Cleora dargei, Desmeocraera cyprianrii, Eumeta cervina,
Kotochalia junodi, Nadasia amblycalymma, Nola lugens, ophiusa tirhaca, Orgyia
basalis, Parasa ananii, Strepsicrates rhothia. (Orthoptera) Staurocleis
magnifica. (Mammalia) Lepus whytei. Young and/or drought-weakened
shrubs can be badly infested by the eucalyptus snout beetle, eucalypt borer,
moth larvae, and termites. Even the young trees are not favored by livestock
and wildlife. The tree is said to kill other tree species (NAS, 1980a). This
is one of the few species whose leaves are eaten by sheep (Watt and
Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962). The litter may provide an important food source for
detritivorous invertebrates and hence for waterfowl in redgum swamps (Briggs
and Maher, 1983).
Analysing 62 kinds of biomass for heating value, Jenkins and Ebeling (1985)
reported a spread of 19.42 to 18.23 MJ/kg, compared to 13.76 for weathered rice
straw to 23.28 MJ/kg for prune pits. On a % DM basis, the wh.plant
contained 81.42% volatiles, 0.76% ash, 17.82% fixed carbon, 49.00% C, 5.87% H,
43.97% O, 0.30% N, 0.01% S, 0.13% Cl, and undetermined residue.
Complete list of references for Duke, Handbook of Energy Crops
- Agpaoa, A.C. 1980. Murray red gum: A drought and fire resistant species for
reforestation. Canopy International 6(10): 1, 8, 10.
- Briggs, S.V. and Maher, M.T. 1983. Litter fall and leaf decomposition in river
red gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis Swamp. Aust. J. Bot. 31(3):307316.
- Browne, F.G. 1968. Pests and diseases of forest plantations trees. Clarendon
- C.S.I.R. (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research). 19481976. The wealth
of India. 11 vols. New Delhi.
- Duke, J.A. 1981b. The gene revolution. Paper 1. p. 89150. In: Office of
Technology Assessment, Background papers for innovative biological technologies
for lesser developed countries. USGPO. Washington.
- Duke, J.A. and Wain, K.K. 1981. Medicinal plants of the world. Computer index
with more than 85,000 entries. 3 vols.
- Jenkins, B.M. and Ebeling, J.M. 1985. Thermochemical properties of biomass
fuels. Calif. Agric. 39(5/6):1416.
- Little, E.L. Jr. 1983. Common fuelwood crops: a handbook for their
identification. McClain Printing Co., Parsons, WV.
- Mariani, E.O., Mariani, C.E., and Lipinsky, S.B. 1981. Tropical eucalyptus. p.
373386. In: McClure, T.A. and Lipinsky, E.S. (eds.), CRC handbook of biosolar
resources, vol. II. Resource materials. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
- N.A.S. 1980a. Firewood crops. Shrub and tree species for energy production.
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
- Standiford, R.B. and Donaldson, D.R. 1982. Trees as energy crops. Cal. Agr.
- Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The medicinal and poisonous plants
of southern and eastern Africa. 2nd ed. E.&S. Livingstone, Ltd., Edinburgh
Last update Tuesday, January 6, 1998 by aw