Eucalyptus gomphocephala A. DC.
Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.
- Folk Medicine
- Yields and Economics
- Biotic Factors
- Chemical Analysis of Biomass Fuels
Widely planted as a windbreak and sandstabilizer, as well as an avenue and
shade tree. Seasoning well, the wood works nicely and is good for boxcars,
construction, fenceposts, stakes, trucks, and wagons (NAS, 1980a; Little,
1983). Bees working the flowers produce a choice light creamy honey.
No data available.
The leaf is reported to contain only 0.03% essential oil, rich in
a-phellandrene and a-pinene (C.S.I.R., 19481976); the bark and kino
contain tannin (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962).
Evergreen tree 1242 m high. Trunk short, 12.3 m in diameter; crown dense,
broad, with large spreading to nearly upright branches. Bark light ashy-gray,
fibrous, finely fissured, not shedding. Leaves alternate, narrowly lanceolate,
1217 cm long, 1.52.5 cm wide, slightly curved, acuminate, acute at base,
entire, glabrous, thick, both surfaces shiny gray-green with faint regular
veins. Umbels single at leaf base, with broad flat stalk 2.53.5 cm long and
11.5 cm wide. Flowers 37, stalkless from buds 2025 mm long. Stamens many,
long, threadlike, white, with oblong anthers and oblong gland. Pistil with
inferior 4-celled ovary and short style. Capsules 1320 mm long, 1115 mm in
diameter. Seeds many, tiny, 23 mm long, light brown (Little, 1983).
Reported from the Australian Center of Diversity, tuart, or cvs thereof, is
reported to tolerate calcareous soil, limestone, salt, sand, and wind (NAS,
1980a). While tolerating slightly saline soils, it will not tolerate
water-logging. This species is one of the best for winter rainfall areas.
Grows naturally in pure or almost pure stands, less commonly in mixed forests
with other eucalypts, restricted to a narrow sandy coastal plain behind the
coastal dunes near Perth, from sea level to 30 m. Cultivated and/or promising
in Cyprus, Ethiopia, Greece, Israel, Italy, Libya, Morocco (66,000 ha),
Tunisia, Turkey, and Uruguay (NAS, 1980a).
Tuart is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 3 to 10 dm and annual
temperature of ca 16 to 18°C, with 6 dry summer months. It grows naturally
on neutral yellow or brown sand over limestone. Growing well on coarse,
well-drained sands, it will tolerate 25% active Ca. Still it is said to be
unsuitable for high lime soils and for frosty areas. It tolerates lower
fertility than E. camaldulensis.
Easily propagated from seed and coppice (Little, 1983). Cultivation by dry
farming techniques is best in the first year or two to suppress weed growth.
Rotations of 710 years are used. Trees regenerate readily from coppice.
Irrigated fertile Moroccan soils have yielded annually 2144 m3/ha,
but yields of 67 are more usual on difficult sites.
One of the densest woods known (sp. grav. 1.17), tuart burns well and makes
The eucalypt borer (Phoracantha semipunctata) may be a pest, especially
in drier sites. In addition, Browne (1968) lists the following as affecting
this species: (Fungi) Armillaria mellea, Fusarium oxysporum.
(Coleoptera) Systates surdus, Triphocarisa acanthocera. (Hemiptera)
Analysing 62 kinds of biomass for heating value, Jenkins and Ebeling (1985)
reported a spread of 19.23 to 18.03 MJ/kg, compared to 13.76 for weathered rice
straw to 23.28 MJ/kg for prune pits. On a % DM basis, the wh. plant contained
81.60% volatiles, 1.10% ash, 17.30% fixed carbon, 48.18%C, 5.92%H, 44.18% O,
0.39% N, 0.01% S, 0.20% Cl, and undetermined residue.
Complete list of references for Duke, Handbook of Energy Crops
- Browne, F.G. 1968. Pests and diseases of forest plantations trees. Clarendon
- C.S.I.R. (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research). 19481976. The wealth
of India. 11 vols. New Delhi.
- Jenkins, B.M. and Ebeling, J.M. 1985. Thermochemical properties of biomass
fuels. Calif. Agric. 39(5/6):1416.
- Little, E.L. Jr. 1983. Common fuelwood crops: a handbook for their
identification. McClain Printing Co., Parsons, WV.
- N.A.S. 1980a. Firewood crops. Shrub and tree species for energy production.
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
- Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The medicinal and poisonous plants
of southern and eastern Africa. 2nd ed. E.&S. Livingstone, Ltd., Edinburgh
Last update Tuesday, January 6, 1998 by aw