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Eucalyptus occidentalis Endl.

Swamp yate

Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.

  1. Uses
  2. Folk Medicine
  3. Chemistry
  4. Description
  5. Germplasm
  6. Distribution
  7. Ecology
  8. Cultivation
  9. Harvesting
  10. Yields and Economics
  11. Energy
  12. Biotic Factors
  13. References


Reported as one of the hardest and straightest timbers of the world, with a tensile strength only slightly below that of wrought iron. The wood is used for wheelwright work (frames, vehicles, wheel parts) and construction. In Western Australia, the tree is recommended as a shade tree, suitable for parks because its light shade doesn't prevent grass. The bark was once used as a source of tannin.

Folk Medicine

No data available.


The leaf is reported to contain 0.95% oil with aromadendren (or aromadendrol), pinene, cineol, and sesquiterpenes. The bark is reported to contain 35–52% tannin (Watt and Breyer Brandwijk, 1962).


Evergreen tree 15–28 m high, with stout erect trunk to 80 cm diameter; flat-topped or umbrellalike crown. Bark dark gray or almost black, thick, rough, fissured, fibrous, not shedding. Leaves alternate, narrowly to broadly lanceolate, 10–14 cm long, 2–3 cm wide, acute at both ends, sides nearly equal, entire, glabrous, thick, shiny dark green on both surfaces, petiole to 2 cm long. Umbels single at leaf base, the stalk 15–25 mm long. Flowers 3–7, short-stalked, the bud to 20 mm long. Stamens many, long, 8–20 mm long, yellowish-white, thread-like, with tiny gland-dots, oblong anthers with oblong gland. Pistil with inferior conical 4-celled ovary and long slender style. Capsules short-stalked, bell-shaped, 10–18 mm long, 8–12 mm wide. Seeds few, tiny, 2 mm long, brown (Little, 1983).


Reported from the Australian Center of Diversity, swamp yate, or cvs thereof, is reported to tolerate alkalinity, drought, heavy soils, salinity, sand, and brief waterlogging (NAS, 1980a; Little, 1983). It is reported to fare well on soils with 8% chlorides. (2n = 22)


Native to the southwestern part of Western Australia (elev 50–300 m), the species has been introduced to northern Africa and southwestern Asia. Successful plantations are reported from Algeria, California, Hawaii, Iran, Israel, Morocco, and Sri Lanka (NAS, 1980a).


Estimated to range from Subtropical Thorn to Dry through Warm Temperate Thorn to Dry Forest Life Zones, swamp yate is estimated or reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 3 to 10 dm, annual temperature of 16 to 23°C, and pH of 6.0 to 8.2. Summers where the species naturally grows may attain 38°C, with a dry season up to 7 months; the winters may dip down to 2°C, with up to 20 frosts. Trees often occur in seasonally flooded alluvial flats and adjacent to salt lakes, on clays.


No data available.


No data available.

Yields and Economics

Compared to other species of eucalypt, this is a slow grower. Webb et al. (1980) reported wood yields of 3–8 m3/ha/yr.


The wood burns steadily with a hot fire.

Biotic Factors

NAS (1980a) reports no pests or diseases.


Complete list of references for Duke, Handbook of Energy Crops
Last update Tuesday, January 6, 1998 by aw