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Eucalyptus saligna Sm.

Myrtaceae
Saligna eucalypt

Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.


  1. Uses
  2. Folk Medicine
  3. Chemistry
  4. Description
  5. Germplasm
  6. Distribution
  7. Ecology
  8. Cultivation
  9. Harvesting
  10. Yields and Economics
  11. Energy
  12. Biotic Factors
  13. References

Uses

Often confused with E. grandis, a bottomland species, this slope species is an important general purpose hardwood and construction timber in Australia. Also used for cabinetry, crossties, furniture, shipbuilding, turnery, veneers. Since it is not a "greasy" wood, the Australians favor it for floorings and steps. A good honey plant, is often grown as an ornamental and/or shade tree (Little, 1983). Much used in South Africa for paper pulp and artificial silk (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962). The oil has insecticidal properties against bedbugs, black beetles, flies, lice, and mosquitoes (Kambu et al., 1982).

Folk Medicine

No data available.

Chemistry

Leaves contain 0.12% essential oil, largely composed of a-pinene and p-cymene. Kambu et al. (1982) add 1,8-cineole, borneol, a-terpineol, and linalol. The bark contains 5.9-8.4% tannin.

Description

Evergreen tree 40–70 m high with open, spreading, irregular crown. Trunk 1.2–1.8 m in diameter, straight. Bark dull, bluish or greenish-gray, smooth, peeling off slightly and exposing yellow layer. Roots may have lignotubers near the surface. Leaves alternate, lanceolate, 10–20 cm long, 1.5–3 cm wide, often curved, acuminate, acute at base, glabrous, dull green or dark green above, dull light green below. Petiole 12–25 mm long. Umbels single at leaf bases and along twigs, 2–2.5 cm long. Flowers 3–9, usually 7, equally short-stalked or nearly stalkless, 12–19 mm across. Buds 8–9 mm long, 4–5 mm wide. Stamens many, threadlike, white, anthers oblong with large round gland. Pistil with inferior 3–5-celled ovary and short style, Capsules on short stalk or subsessile, campanulate or conical, 5–6 mm long and wide, dark brown. Seeds many, tiny, 1–2 mm long, dull light brown (Little, 1983).

Germplasm

Reported from the Australian Center of Diversity and is reported to tolerate slopes. (2n = 22)

Distribution

Native to southeastern Australia, from sea level to 1,000 m. Introduced in Argentina, Brazil, California, Guyana, Hawaii, India, Indonesia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Sri Lanka.

Ecology

Estimated to range from Subtropical Dry to Moist through Warm Temperate Dry to Moist Forest Life Zones, saligna eucalypt is reported or estimated to tolerate annual precipitation of 8 to 15 dm, annual temperature of 16 to 22°C, and pH of 6.0 to 8.0. Inhabits soils derived from shales and deep well drained clays in valleys.

Cultivation

No data available.

Harvesting

No data available.

Yields and Economics

This is the fastest growing eucalypt in Hawaii where one 71 m specimen represents the tallest hardwood species in the US.

Energy

A 4-year old stand in Brazil had standing biomass of 56 MT/ha (38 aboveground, 8 litter, and 10 belowground). But annual biomass productivity was estimated at 15–17 MT/ha (Andrae and Krapfenbauer, 1979). Fenton et al. (1977) report wood yields of 19 m3/ha/yr; Webb et al. (1980), 20–38.

Biotic Factors

Browne (1968) lists the following as affecting this species: (Fungi) Fomes robustus, Sclerotinia fuckeliana, Thanataphorous cucumeris. (Coleoptera) Chaetastus tuberculatus, Doliopygus kenyaensis, Entypotrachelus meyeri, Nematocerus lindblomi, Phoracantha semipunctata, Triphocaris acanthocera, T. solida, Xyleborus truncatus. (Hemiptera) Cardiaspina pinnaeformis, Glycaspis baileyi. (Hymenoptera) Phylacteophaga eucalypti. (Isoptera) Macrotermes natalensis, Pseudacanthotermes militarism (Lepidoptera) Acrocercops laciniella, Agrapha limbirena, Axiologa pura, Cleora dargei, Eumeta junodi, Nola lugens, Nudaurelia gueinzii, Oenetus virescens, Pachypasa subfascia, Spilonota macropetana, Spodoptera littoralis, Strepsicrates rhothia, Zelotypia staccyi. (Orthoptera) Brachytrupes membranaccus. (Mammalia) Lepus whytei, Tragelaphus scriptus.

References

Complete list of references for Duke, Handbook of Energy Crops
Last update Tuesday, January 6, 1998 by aw