Eucalyptus saligna Sm.
Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.
- Folk Medicine
- Yields and Economics
- Biotic Factors
Often confused with E. grandis, a bottomland species, this slope species
is an important general purpose hardwood and construction timber in Australia.
Also used for cabinetry, crossties, furniture, shipbuilding, turnery, veneers.
Since it is not a "greasy" wood, the Australians favor it for floorings and
steps. A good honey plant, is often grown as an ornamental and/or shade tree
(Little, 1983). Much used in South Africa for paper pulp and artificial silk
(Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962). The oil has insecticidal properties against
bedbugs, black beetles, flies, lice, and mosquitoes (Kambu et al., 1982).
No data available.
Leaves contain 0.12% essential oil, largely composed of a-pinene and
p-cymene. Kambu et al. (1982) add 1,8-cineole, borneol, a-terpineol, and
linalol. The bark contains 5.9-8.4% tannin.
Evergreen tree 4070 m high with open, spreading, irregular crown. Trunk
1.21.8 m in diameter, straight. Bark dull, bluish or greenish-gray, smooth,
peeling off slightly and exposing yellow layer. Roots may have lignotubers
near the surface. Leaves alternate, lanceolate, 1020 cm long, 1.53 cm wide,
often curved, acuminate, acute at base, glabrous, dull green or dark green
above, dull light green below. Petiole 1225 mm long. Umbels single at leaf
bases and along twigs, 22.5 cm long. Flowers 39, usually 7, equally
short-stalked or nearly stalkless, 1219 mm across. Buds 89 mm long, 45 mm
wide. Stamens many, threadlike, white, anthers oblong with large round gland.
Pistil with inferior 35-celled ovary and short style, Capsules on short stalk
or subsessile, campanulate or conical, 56 mm long and wide, dark brown. Seeds
many, tiny, 12 mm long, dull light brown (Little, 1983).
Reported from the Australian Center of Diversity and is reported to tolerate
slopes. (2n = 22)
Native to southeastern Australia, from sea level to 1,000 m. Introduced in
Argentina, Brazil, California, Guyana, Hawaii, India, Indonesia, New Zealand,
South Africa, and Sri Lanka.
Estimated to range from Subtropical Dry to Moist through Warm Temperate Dry to
Moist Forest Life Zones, saligna eucalypt is reported or estimated to tolerate
annual precipitation of 8 to 15 dm, annual temperature of 16 to 22°C, and pH
of 6.0 to 8.0. Inhabits soils derived from shales and deep well drained clays
No data available.
No data available.
This is the fastest growing eucalypt in Hawaii where one 71 m specimen
represents the tallest hardwood species in the US.
A 4-year old stand in Brazil had standing biomass of 56 MT/ha (38 aboveground,
8 litter, and 10 belowground). But annual biomass productivity was estimated
at 1517 MT/ha (Andrae and Krapfenbauer, 1979). Fenton et al. (1977) report
wood yields of 19 m3/ha/yr; Webb et al. (1980), 2038.
Browne (1968) lists the following as affecting this species: (Fungi) Fomes
robustus, Sclerotinia fuckeliana, Thanataphorous cucumeris.
(Coleoptera) Chaetastus tuberculatus, Doliopygus kenyaensis,
Entypotrachelus meyeri, Nematocerus lindblomi, Phoracantha semipunctata,
Triphocaris acanthocera, T. solida, Xyleborus truncatus. (Hemiptera)
Cardiaspina pinnaeformis, Glycaspis baileyi. (Hymenoptera)
Phylacteophaga eucalypti. (Isoptera) Macrotermes natalensis,
Pseudacanthotermes militarism (Lepidoptera) Acrocercops laciniella,
Agrapha limbirena, Axiologa pura, Cleora dargei, Eumeta junodi, Nola lugens,
Nudaurelia gueinzii, Oenetus virescens, Pachypasa subfascia, Spilonota
macropetana, Spodoptera littoralis, Strepsicrates rhothia, Zelotypia staccyi.
(Orthoptera) Brachytrupes membranaccus. (Mammalia) Lepus
whytei, Tragelaphus scriptus.
Complete list of references for Duke, Handbook of Energy Crops
- Andrae, F. and Krapfenbauer, A. 1979. Studies on biomass and nutrients in 4-yr.
old Eucalyptus saligna plantation in Santa Maria, Brazil. Centralblatt
fur Gesamte Forstwesen 96(1):129.
- Browne, F.G. 1968. Pests and diseases of forest plantations trees. Clarendon
- Fenton, R., Roper, R.E., and Watt, G.R. 1977. Lowland tropical hardwoods.
External Aid Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Wellington, N.Z.
- Kambu, K., D. Phanzu, N., Coune, C., Wauters, J.N., and Angenot, L. 1982.
Contribution to the study of the insecticidal and chemical properties of
Eucalyptus saligna of Zaire. Plant. Med. Phytother. 16(1):3438.
- Little, E.L. Jr. 1983. Common fuelwood crops: a handbook for their
identification. McClain Printing Co., Parsons, WV.
- Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The medicinal and poisonous plants
of southern and eastern Africa. 2nd ed. E.&S. Livingstone, Ltd., Edinburgh
- Webb, D.E., Wood, P.J., and Smith, J. 1980. A guide to species selection for
tropical and sub-tropical plantations. Tropical Forestry Papers 15. CFI,
Last update Tuesday, January 6, 1998 by aw