Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm.
Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.
- Folk Medicine
- Yields and Economics
- Biotic Factors
Recommended as a fuelwood species for arid and semiarid tropical regions, this
shade and shelterbelt species has heavy wood (sp. grav. 0.751.05), is hard,
durable, and strong but difficult to work. It is used for fuel, pulp, pilings,
fiberboard, and construction; also for crossties and fenceposts.
No data available.
Leaves contain 0.480.66% essential oil, 010.4% of which is cineol. The bark
and kino contain tannin.
Evergreen tree 1846 m high with straight stout trunk 11.8 m in diameter,
large and open or fairly dense crown. Bark smooth, whitish, peeling in
irregular thin sheets or large flakes, becoming mottled with white, gray, or
blueish patches. Leaves alternate, lanceolate, 1021 cm long, 1225 mm wide,
often curved, acuminate, acute at base, slightly thickened, shiny green on both
surfaces, glabrous. Umbels single at leaf base, 2.53 cm long including the
rounded stalk of 1 cm. Flowers 512, spreading on equal stalks on 57 mm.
Buds 1216 mm long, 5 mm wide. Stamens many, threadlike, white, 1012 mm long,
anthers small and elliptical, with small round gland. Pistil with inferior
45-celled ovary and long stout style. Capsules several, hemiglobose or
turbinate, 69 mm long, 810 mm in diameter. Seeds many, tiny, 1 mm long and
broad, shiny dark brown to black (Little, 1983).
Reported from the Australian Center of Diversity, forest redgum, or cvs
thereof, is reported to tolerate drought and light frosts. It does not
tolerate acidic soils or waterlogging. (2n = 22)
With a wide latitudinal range (638°S) of ca 3,000 km from sea level to
1,800 m, the forest redgum is native from eastern Australia into New Guinea and
Papua, the species is widely introduced, faring notably in South Africa for
example. Reported in Argentina, Botswana, Brazil (national average yield 18
m3/ha/yr), Congo, Cuba, Fiji, Ghana, Guyana, India, Indonesia,
Pakistan, Papua, Paraguay, Peru, Sudan, Uruguay, and Zimbabwe (Mariani et al., 1981; Fenton et al., 1977).
Estimated to range from Tropical Very Dry to Moist through Warm Temperate Dry
to Moist Forest Life Zones, forest redgum is reported to tolerate annual
precipitation of 5 to 20 dm, annual temperature of 16 to 25°C, and pH of 6.5
to 7.5. Where it grows naturally, it may tolerate 015 frosts a year. The dry
season may extend for 7 months. The mean maximum temperature of the warmest
month is ca 27°C, while the mean minimum of the coolest month is 7°C.
Soils, usually not acidic, are rather rich, moist, alluvial, sandy loams and
gravels, not usually waterlogged (Mariani et al., 1981).
No data available.
In Argentina it is harvested on 78-year rotations for charcoal, 912-year
cycles for construction timber (Mariani et al., 1981).
On good sites in Argentina, an MAI of 1830 m3/ha/yr is obtainable,
but in poor sites in India, the MAI may be closer to 3. At Dehra Dun, the
'Mysore' hybrid yielded only 3 m3/ha/yr compared to 22 for E.
grandis (Fenton et al., 1977).
In his compilation, Cannell (1982) cites data showing that trees 5 years old,
spaced at 1,670 trees/ha, averaged a basal area of 18 m2/ha. The
stemwood and bark on a DM basis weighed 53.7 MT/ha, the branches 10.1, the
foliage 6.7, and the roots were estimated at 10.6 MT/ha for a total standing
biomass of 81.1 MT/ha. Nine-year olds spaced at 840 trees/ha averaged basal
area of 42 m2/ha. The stemwood and bark weighed 139.2 MT/ha, the
branches 30.9, the foliage 8.0, and the roots were estimated at 18.6 for a
total standing biomass of 196.7; suggesting an annual increment exceeding 20
MT/ha. The wood is used for firewood and charcoal. In Argentina, it is grown
for the charcoal iron industry on a 78-year rotation. Calorific values were
measured of different parts of 59-year old trees and their litter. Values for
living material ranged from 3.2 to 5.7 kcal/g, similar to published values for
forest communities. Energy content, annual production, retention and release
through litter fall are tabulated for each stand age. Net annual production
(in kcal/ha x 108) increased from 0.93 (of which 0.83 is retained in the tree
and 0.10 released as litter) at 5 yr old to 1.56 (1.32 retained and 0.24
released) at 9 yr old. Energy fixation by E. tereticornis appears more
efficient than in some other tree species reported in the literature (Singh,
Fenton et al. (1977) mention Alternaria tenuissima, Corticium salmonicolor,
Cylindrocladium scoparium, Ganoderma lucidum, and Sclerotinia fuckeliana
among diseases. Scarab beetles may defoliate this and other species. The
coreid, Amblypelta cocophaga, has been associated with trees suffering
Complete list of references for Duke, Handbook of Energy Crops
- Cannell, M.G.R. 1982. World forest biomass and primary production data.
Academic Press, New York.
- Fenton, R., Roper, R.E., and Watt, G.R. 1977. Lowland tropical hardwoods.
External Aid Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Wellington, N.Z.
- Little, E.L. Jr. 1983. Common fuelwood crops: a handbook for their
identification. McClain Printing Co., Parsons, WV.
- Mariani, E.O., Mariani, C.E., and Lipinsky, S.B. 1981. Tropical eucalyptus. p.
373386. In: McClure, T.A. and Lipinsky, E.S. (eds.), CRC handbook of biosolar
resources, vol. II. Resource materials. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
- Singh, R.P. 1980. Energy dynamics in eucalyptus tereticornis smith plantations
in western Uttar Pradesh. Indian Forester 106(9):649658.
Last update Tuesday, January 6, 1998 by aw