Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.
Syn.: Phragmites communes Trin.
Phragmites vulgaris B.S.P.
Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.
- Folk Medicine
- Yields and Economics
- Biotic Factors
Common reed provides high quality warm-season forage and is readily eaten by
cattle and horses. However, it becomes tough and unpalatable after maturity.
Animals grazing this grass during winter should be fed a protein concentrate.
Extensively used in Mediterranean region and elsewhere for building dwellings,
lattices, fences, arrows by Indians, and for weaving mats and carrying nets.
Young shoots sometimes used as a vegetable. The stalks exude a manna-like gum
which is eaten. The rhizomes and roots also serve as emergency food. In
Russia they are harvested and processed into starch. A variegated form is
grown as an ornamental. The reed is useful in the manufacture of pulps for
rayon and paper. It contains over 50 percent cellulose and has a fibre 0.83.0
mm long and 5.030.5 mm in diameter. Pens for writing on parchment were cut
and fashioned from this reed, and the stems were used as a linear measuring
device. It is also useful in the production of homogeneous boards. It can be
processed into a fine fibrous material suitable as a filler in upholstery.
Flowering stalks yield a fiber suitable for rope making. It is also used for
thatching and for making partitions, fences, coarse mats, baskets, sandals,
etc. Thin stems are made into pens; panicles are used for making brooms and
According to Hartwell (19671971), the plant is used in folk remedies for
condylomata, indurated breast, mammary carcinomata, and leukemia. Reported to
be alexeteric, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, refrigerant, sialogogue,
stomachic, and sudorific, the common reed is a folk remedy for abscesses,
arthritis, bronchitis, cancer, cholera, cough, diabetes, dropsy, dysuria,
fever, flux, gout, hematuria, hemorrhage, hiccup, jaundice, leukemia, lung,
nausea, rheumatism, sores, stomach, thirst, and typhoid.
Per 100 g, the reed is reported to contain (ZMB): 415 calories, 10.6 g protein,
2.1 g fat, 72.7 g total carbohydrate, 31.9 g fiber, 14.6 g ash, 480 mg Ca, 60
mg P, and 130 mg Mg. Leaves are reported to contain 17.1 g protein, 3.5 g fat,
63.7 g total carbohydrate, 27.4 g fiber, and 15.7 g ash. Stems are reported to
contain 4.8 g protein, 0.8 g fat, 90.0 g total carbohydrate, 41.2 g fiber, and
4.4 g ash. According to Hagers Handbook (List and Horhammer, 19691979), the
fresh herb contains 5.15 mg Vit. A/100 g, and 91.1 mg Vit. C as well as Vit.
B1, and B2, the triterpene b-amyrin, taraxerol, and taraxeron (C30H48O).
The rhizomes contain: moisture, 5.3; nitrogenous substances, 5.2; fat, 0.9;
NFE, 50.8; CF, 32.0; sucrose, 5.2; reducing sugars, 1.1; and ash (rich in
silica), 5.8%. Asparagine (0.1%) is also present. P. communes is rich
in pentosans and may be used for the production of furfural; nodes and sheaths
yield 6.6% and the underground parts over 13% of furfural. The pentosan
content increases throughout the growing period and is maximum in the mature
reed. The reed can be used also for the preparation of absolute alcohol, feed
yeast and lactic acid. Analysis of the young grass gave: protein, 11.4; EE,
2.3; carbohydrates, 43.1; CF, 31.05; mineral matter (with high silica content),
10.8; calcium (CaO), 0.94; and phosphorus (P2O5) 0.39%. The reed is reported
to contain a wax and a saponin. Leaves have a high ascorbic acid content (200
Perennial grass; culms erect, 24 m tall, occasionally up to 6 m, with stout
creeping rhizomes, often also with stolons; leaf-blades broad, flat, 1.56 dm
long, 16 cm broad, glabrous, green or glaucous, the sheaths overlapping;
panicle tawny or purplish, 1540 cm long, the branches ascending, rather
densely flowered; spikelets 1017 mm long, the florets exceeded by the hairs of
the rachilla; first glume 2.55 mm long; second glume 5.7 mm long; lemmas
glabrous, sharp-pointed, not bifid, with long hairs confined to rachilla
joints; lowest floret staminate. Fl. JulyOctober.
There is considerable variability in glaucousness of leaves, shape and
denseness of panicle and growth habit. The variegated form, or Spire-reed, is
sold as an ornamental grass. Reported from the Eurosiberian Center of
Diversity, reed or cvs thereof is reported to tolerate fire, frost, high pH,
salt, weeds, and waterlogging.(2n = 48, 36, 54)
Native to Eurasia, Africa, but now widespread throughout the world; throughout
United States, Mexico, West Indies to Chile and Argentina, Australia.
Grows in marshes and swamps, along streams, lakes, ponds, ditches, and wet
wastelands, often weedy and very difficult to eradicate, as the stoloniferous
rhizomes may reach 10 m or more in length. Grows best in firm mineral clays,
and tolerates moderate salinity, where water level fluctuates from 15 cm below
soil surface to 15 cm above. Tolerates burning if water is above soil surface,
but burning is not essential for management. In Gulf Coast marsh rangelands,
it is often co-dominate with Big cordgrass (Spartina cynosuroides).
Ranging from Cool Temperate Steppe to Wet through Tropical Desert to Moist
Forest Life Zones, reed is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 3.1 to
24.1 dm (mean of 16 cases = 9.8) annual temperature of 6.6 to 26.6°C (mean
of 16 cases = 14.8) and pH of 4.8 to 8.2 (mean of 12 cases = 6.2). (Duke, 1978,
Rarely if ever really cultivated. However, stands may be started by
transplanting young plants or rooted stolons. Starts growth in February in
southern locations, later further north. Foliage stays green until frost. New
shoots grow from buds at nodes of old stems, stolons or rhizomes.
Giant reed cannot withstand prolonged heavy grazing. Its upright growth makes
it easy for livestock to remove all the leaves. For maximum production, no
more than 50% of current year's growth by weight should be grazed off during
the growing season. Water control that lowers the water level but does not
drain the area increases production. Grazing deferments of 6090 days improve
plant vigor. The straight hollow stems are cut in autumn and dried for
arrowshafts, pipestems, loom rods, screens, roofing for houses and adobe huts,
etc. Leaves are also gathered and used for weaving mats and other objects.
Though the plants grow profusely wherever they occur, few yield data are
available. A very useful grass wherever it grows, especially in the
Mediterranean region, North Africa, and western North America. Although used
extensively locally, its products do not enter commercial markets.
Reed swamps in Europe produce 7.513.0 MT/ha/yr. According to the Phytomass
files (Duke, 1981b), annual productivity ranges from 40 to 63 MT/ha. Reeds are
currently being harvested from Swedish lakes at a cost of ca $50/MT (ca
$2.86/GJ gross thermal value), which rises to $60/MT after transportation and
final processing ($3.43/GJ gross thermal value). These costs are expected to
diminish as machines and methods are optimised (Palz and Chartier, 1980).
Because of its extensive use, a great number of fungi have been reported on
giant reed; however, none of them have seemed to have caused any great damage
to the grass. Reported are the following fungi: Belonioscypha vexata,
Belonopsis excelsior, Bispora hamonis, Chaetomella atra, Cladosporium herbarum,
Clasterosporium lindavianum, Claviceps purpurea, C. microcephala, Coniosporium
arundinis, C. sorghi, Cyphella capula, Dinemasporium strigosum, Diplodina
arundinacea, D. donacina, Epicoccum neglectum, Fomes fomentarius, Fusarium
graminearum, Graphyllium dakotense, G. graminis, G. manitobiense, Hadrotrichum
phragmitis, Helminthosporium fusiforme, Helotium robustius, Hendersonia
arundinacea, H. fuckelii, H. graminicola, H. phragmitis, Hymenella arundinis,
Lachnum acutipilum, Leptosphaeria arundinaceae, L. culmifraga, L. donacina, L.
littoralis, L. phragmiticola, Leptostroma phragmitis, Lophiostoma arundinis,
Lophiodermium arundinaceum, Melaconium echinosporum, M. sphaerospermum,
Melanopsamma pomiformis, Meliola arundinis, Microdiplodia machlaiana, Mollisia
arundinacea, M. riparia, Napicladium arundinaceum, Nervossia iowensis,
Papularia sphaerosperma, Phyllosticta phragmitis, Piricularia grisea, Pirostoma
circinans, Placosphaeria dothideoides, P. rimosa, Pleospora adscondita,
Pseudographis phragmitis, Puccinia argentea, P. isiacea, P. invenusta, P.
magnusiana, P. phragmitis (rubella), P. trabutii, Pythium debaryanum, P.
ultimum, Rhabdospora arundinis, Rhopographus clavisporus, Scirrhia ramosa,
Scolecotrichum graminis, S. maculicola, Selenophoma donacis, Sphaerella
phragmitis, Stagonospora arenaria, S. dolosa, S. neglecta, S. graminella, S.
simplicior, S. vexata, Tapesia hydrophila, Teichospora phragmitis, Torula
herbarum, Trichobelonium kneiffii, Uromyces blandus, Ustilago grandis, U.
hypodytes, Volutella therryana. The nematode Subanguina radicicola
has been isolated from this grass.
Complete list of references for Duke, Handbook of Energy Crops
- Duke, J.A. 1978. The quest for tolerant germplasm. p. 161. In: ASA Special
Symposium 32, Crop tolerance to suboptimal land conditions. Am. Soc. Agron.
- Duke, J.A. 1979. Ecosystematic data on economic plants. Quart. J. Crude Drug
- Hartwell, J.L. 19671971. Plants used against cancer. A survey. Lloydia 3034.
- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L. 19691979. Hager's handbuch der pharmazeutischen
praxis. vols 26. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
- Palz, W. and Chartier, P. (eds.). 1980. Energy from biomass in Europe. Applied
Science Publishers Ltd., London.
Last update Wednesday, January 7, 1998 by aw