Pinus elliottii Engelm.
Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.
- Folk Medicine
- Yields and Economics
- Biotic Factors
A major source of pulp and tall oils in the deep south of the United States.
The wood is very hard, heavy, strong, coarse grained, and durable. It is used
for construction and railroad ties. Terpin hydrate is the main synthetic
product of turpentine used in pharmaceutical preparations, used as an
expectorant in humans and for veterinary bronchitis (Morton, 1977). Other
synthetics produced from pine are anethole, camphor, and dl-menthol. Tall oil
rosin contains sterols, mainly sitosterol. Russians built a factory in 1968 to
produce steroids from pine pulp extractives. They are also pioneering in the
commercial production of vitamin A and E. Synthetic materials derived from
turpentine are used in perfumery and to impart flavors suggestive of cinnamon,
citrus, lemongrass, licorice, nutmeg, peppermint, and spearmint. Menthol from
turpentine is added to cigarettes and cosmetic and toilet products (Morton,
Turpentine has long been used internally for catarrh, chronic bowel
inflammation, colds, gonorrhea, leucorrhea, rheumatism, And various urinary
complaints, rheumatism, and ulcers. Pine tar has been used for many ailments
in the past, but lately it is prescribed only for external use in chronic and
parasitic skin diseases. It shows up in several of the drugs I have resorted
to in the futile efforts to cure my psoriasis. (I have had better luck in
substituting rice flour for wheat flour with its glutin.)
Leaves yield ca 0.3% of a balsam scented oil compared to about 0.4% for
longleaf pine. This leaf oil consists mostly of borneol, cadinene, camphene,
and b-pinene. The natural oleoresin exudate from the resin ducts contains
ca 66% resin acids, 25% turpentine, 7% nonvolatiles, and 2% water. Turpentine
from slash pine contains 1-a-pinene, while that from longleaf contains some
d-pinene. Pinene is the main constituent of turpentine. Dipentene and other
monocyclic terpenes constitute 58% of gum and refined sulfate turpentine,
1520% of wood and crude sulfate turpentine. Camphene constitutes 48% of wood
turpentine, and 0% of gum turpentine. Rosin consists mostly of diterpene resin
acids of the abietic (abietic, neoabietic, palustric, and dehydroabietic) and
pimaric types (pimaric, isopimaric, and sandaracopimaric). Pine tar contains
turpentine, resin, guaiacol, creosol, methylcreosol, phenol, phlorol, toluene,
xylene, etc. Crude tall oil contains 4060% resin acids, 4055% fatty acids
(mostly n-C18, 75% monoenoic, and 25% dienoic, with traces of trienoic and
saturates), and 510% neutral properties (17).
Raised in the southern US like me, Sam Page, of the FDA, tells me that as a
child he was given oral doses (a couple of drops on the tongue) of turpentine
as a mosquito repellant, an effective but dangerous application. My mom
applied it to cuts and sores as a disinfectant, perhaps less dangerous. (Duke,
A fast-growing tree, 1530 m tall, the trunk attaining a diameter of .6 to 1 m
with short, thick branches. Outer bark dark gray, furrowed, breaking into
oblong plates; inner bark red-brown. Needles, in 2s or 3s, 18 to 30 cm long.
Cones (in spring) are rose-purple and 6 mm thick, the male 3.8 to 5 cm long,
densely clustered; the female ca 1.25 cm long. Cones red-brown, maturing and
dropping in the second fall, are 7.5 to 14 cm long, narrow-ovate, broadly ovate
when open, each scale tipped with a short, straight or recurved spine. Seeds
ovoid, 6 mm or more long, smooth, gray, with a glossy, brown, membranous wing
1.5 to 3.5 cm long (17).
Reported from the North American Center of Diversity, slash pine, or cvs
thereof, is reported to tolerate hardpan, sand, slope, small fires, and
waterlogging. Fast growing strains, resistant to pests and diseases, high in
oleoresins, are being developed. When two seed orchards for improved strains
were established in 1969, it was estimated that they would not impact the
extractive industry for 40 or 50 years (Morton, 1977) (2n = 24)
Native to southeast US (South Carolina to Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and
Louisiana). Cultivated and naturalized in east Texas. Widely planted in
subtropical plantations, e.g. Brazil, India.
Ranging from Warm Temperate through Subtropical Moist Forest Life Zones, slash
pine is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 11.2 to 16.0 dm (mean of 2
cases = 13.6), annual temperature of 18.8 to 23.3°C (mean of 2 cases =
21.0), and pH of 5 to 7.7 (mean of 2 cases = 6.4).
Seeds sprout about 2 weeks after planting. Discing the ground following
natural or artificial seeding provides for a better, seed-soil contact. Tree
can be propagated by grafting and air-layering (Morton, 1977). Not as fire
resistant as the longleaf pine, slash pine farmers avoid burning until trees
are 3.54.5 m tall.
Since 1910, pine oleoresins have been derived from heartwood chips (a lumbering
by-product) and from stumps and roots. A ton of wood would yield about 5
gallons of turpentine spirits. Around 1930 more turpentine, rosin, etc. was
derived from the wastes of the Kraft sulphate paper processing, a ton of
sulphate pulp yielding ca 40 kg "tall oil". Trees begin to bear seed when
about 10 years, not attaining full fertility until more than 20 years old.
Morton (1977) reported ca 7.5 million hectares in longleaf and slash pines, the
two major sources of the resin and turpentine products sold in the US. Around
1935, slash pine replaced the longleaf pine as the leading source of oleoresin,
formally called "naval stores". A single tree ca 30 cm in diameter, can
average more than 5 kg gum a year over a four year period. Until about 1930,
tapping was a main source (80%) of the pine gum produced in the US, down to 5%
when Morton's Major Medicinal Plants was published. By 1970, 40% of
domestic rosin and 70% of domestic turpentine were byproducts of sulphate paper
production (Morton, 1977).
Reports in India (Kaul et al, 1982) indicate that total biomass ranges from 169
MT/ha in 10 year old stands to 529 MT/ha in 40 year old stands, indicating
annual productivity rates of ca 17 MT/ha/yr in the 10 year olds, 13 MT/ha/yr in
the 40 year old stands. Aboveground biomass constituted 8185% of the total.
In Florida, Wang et al. (1982) estimate slash pine yields at 9.4
MT/ha/yr. Pine resins have heat values of 34,01837,798 kj/kg. Fuel value of
slash pine can be upgraded by increasing the resin content, thus increasing the
energy content by as much as 12.7%. Wang et al tabulate selected properties of
slash pine biomass with and without being resin soaked.
Table 1. Selected properties of slash pine biomass components collected from
| ||Biomass property |
|Biomass component ||Heat of combustionz |
|Densityy (g/cm3) || Moisture
contentx (%) ||Ash contentx (%) |
|Stemwood ||19,749 ||0.51 ||99 ||0.3 |
|Stembark ||20,875 ||0.27 ||74 ||0.7 |
|Branch ||19,691 ||0.41 ||169 ||Not measured |
|Foliage ||20,478 ||Not measured || 153 ||1.9 |
yOn dry weight basis
xBased on dry weight and green volume
Table 2. Selected properties of resin-soaked slash pine wood collected from
zKossuth et al. (1980) 20-yr-old slash pine was treated with 2% paraquat and
harvested after 24 mo.
|Wood sample ||Heat of combustion (kj/kg) ||Moisture content (%) |
|Bolt 1y ||22,952 ||29.0 |
|Bolt 2x ||21,227 ||51.9 |
|Bolt 3w || 19,921 ||91.1 |
yBolt 1 = first 152 cm above the treatment site.
xBolt 2 = second 152 cm above the treatment site.
wBolt 3 = the remaining merchantable bole to a 7.6 cm inside diameter.
According to Morton, seedlings are prey to the weevil, Hylobius pales
and the pine webworm, Tetralopha robustella. Young and old trees are
subject to fusiform rust (Cronartium fusiforme) and pitch canker
(Fusarium lateritium forma pini). Mature trees are attacked by
red heart (Fomes pini), butt rot (Polyporus schweinitzii) and
root rot (Fomes annosus). Bark beetles (Ips spp.) cause much
damage, especially during droughts. The black turpentine beetle
(Dendroctonus rerebrans) breeds in stumps and attacks mainly trees that
have been tapped for gum. Cones are attacked by the rust Cronartium
strobilinum and the cone moth (Dioryctria sp.) (Morton, 1977).
Browne (1968) lists the fungi Amylostereum sp., Armillaria
mellea, Cronartium conigenum, Dothistroma pini,
Fomes annosus, Fomes noxius, Fusarium spp.,
Lophodermium pinastri, Macrophoma pinea, Peniophora sacrata, Peridermium
harknessii, Physalospora rhodina, Phytophthora bochmeriae, Phytophthora
cinnamomi, Polyporus tomentosus, and Sclerotinia fuckeliana, and the
coleoptera, Aesiotes notabilis, Graphognathus leucoloma, Hylastes
angustatus, Hylurgus ligniperda, Lipsanus iniquus, Perperus lateralis,
and Pityophthorus pulicarius. Pineus laevis is listed under hemiptera.
Hymenoptera listed are Atta sp., Neodiprion lecontei, and
Sirex noctilio. Lepidoptera listed include Arachnographa
micrastrella, Aroa melanoleuca, Hyalarctia huebneri, Lachriolepis nephopyropa,
Lophodes sinistraria, Nudaurelia cytherea, and Rhyacionia
subtropica. Listed under aves are Alisterus scapularis, Calyptorhynchus
funereus, and Platycercus eximius, and under mammalia, Leggada
minutoides, Lophuromys sikapusi, Macaca irus, Mus musculus, Otomys spp.,
Phacochoerus aethiopicus, Potamochoerus porcus, Rattus rattus, Rhabdomys
pumilio, Sus scrofa, Sylvicapra grimmia, Thryonomys swinderianus, Tragelaphus
scriptus, Trichosurus caninus, Trichosurus vulpecula, and Wallabia
sp. Among the nematodes, Golden (p.c. 1984) lists: Belonolaimus
euthychilus, B. gracilis, B. longicaudatus, Caucopaures sp.,
Helicotylenchus dihystera, Hoplolaimus galeatus, Meloidodera floridensis,
Meloidogyne arenaria, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, and Xiphinema
Complete list of references for Duke, Handbook of Energy Crops
- Duke, J.A. 1984b. Borderline herbs. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL.
- Morton, J.F. 1977. Major medicinal plants. C.C. Thomas, Springfield, IL.
- Wang, S.L., Huffman, J.B., and Rockwood, D.L. 1982. Qualitative evaluation of
fuelwood in Floridaa summary report. Econ. Bot. 36(4):381388.
Last update Wednesday, January 7, 1998 by aw