Back to Breeding Apples for Scab Resistance 1945-1990

Table 1. Summary of fruit and tree characteristics of Co-op 1 through 31, scab resistant apple selections - released for advanced testing.


Co-op 1 (PRI 1235-101 = PRI 47-147 x N.J. 123249) (Williams et al. 1967)

Fruit-64 to 70 mm (2-1/2 to 2-3/4 in.); round oblate; pale yellow to cream ground color; bright finish; slightly striped, 70% medium to pale red; fine-grained, cream colored, firm to slightly crisp flesh; spicy, sprite y acid, slightly aromatic flavor; moderately juicy. Season of Maturity-Six weeks before 'Delicious.' Tree-Limber, bare-wooded branches; unreliable cropping. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; moderate resistance to powdery mildew; field immune to cedar-apple rust; susceptible to fire blight. Problems-Acidic, small fruit size, uneven ripening, heavy fruit drop, inadequate storage life. General Recommendation-Problems too severe For further consideration. Discarded at Lafayette.

Co-op 2 (PRI 1225-100 = PRI 14-510 x N.J. 123249) Introduced as 'Prima' (Dayton et al. 1970) U.S. Plant Patent No. Reissue 28,435, 1975

Fruit-67 to 76 mm or more (2-1/2 to 3 in.); round to short conic and irregular; green yellow to yellow ground color; bright finish; slightly striped, 50 to 90% medium to dark red; medium grained, cream colored, crisp and breaking flesh at harvest, reduced firmness after 3 to 4 weeks in storage; slightly spicy, moderately to spritely acid, and rich in flavor, juicy; very good dessert quality. Moderate to large fruit size. Early 'Jonathan' type fruit. Retains quality for one month or more in refrigerated storage. Fruit hangs on tree until over-ripe. Season of Maturity-Four to five weeks before 'Delicious. Tree-Semi-vigorous, spreading. Moderately large in size. Disease Resistance-Highly resistant to scab in the field. Good resistance to powdery mildew. Moderate to good resistance to fire blight. Susceptible to cedar-apple rust. Problems-Sensitive to cold and prone to winter injury; susceptibility to cedar-apple rust is a problem in some areas; fruit colors poorly inside canopy; storage longevity often considered inadequate; prone to bitter-pit, uneven ripening, requiring two or more pickings. General Recommendation-Suggested for commercial plantings for early entry into fresh market, in areas where 'Jonathan' is grown, and especially for reduced input production. Only suggested where winter injury is not a severe problem.

Co-op 3 (PRI 1686-1 = N.J. 8 x PRI 558-1) (Williams et al. 1967)

Fruit-57 to 70 mm (2-1/4 to 2-3/4 in.); round to short conic; green yellow to yellow ground color; bright finish; slightly striped, 60 to 80% medium red; medium grained, white to cream colored, slightly crisp yet tender flesh at harvest, softening after 3 weeks in storage; bland, spritely acid; moderately juicy. Season of Maturity-Five weeks before 'Delicious.' Tree-Semi-vigorous, spreading. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; good resistance to powdery mildew; susceptible to fire blight; highly resistant to cedar-apple rust. Problems-Insufficient flavor; tender flesh; small fruit size; uneven ripening; tendency for fruit drop; very short storage life; susceptibility to secondary diseases. General Recommendation-Problems too severe for further consideration. Discarded at Lafayette.

Co-op 4 (PRI 1659-1 = 'Starking Delicious' x PRI 610-2) Introduced as 'Priscilla' (Williams et al. 1972) U.S. Plant Patent No. 3,488

Fruit-64 to 76 mm (2-1/2 to 3 in.); oblate conic to short conic with pointed calyx; green yellow to pale yellow or cream ground color; very bright finish, slightly striped, splashed,-70 to 95% medium red; medium grained, pale yellow colored, unusually crisp and breaking flesh at harvest; moderately aromatic, licorice aroma, mildly acid to sweet, and rich in flavor; moderately juicy; very good dessert quality. Moderate fruit size. Annual cropping. Fruit hangs on the tree until over-ripe. Retains quality for two to three months or more in refrigerated storage if properly handled. Season of Maturity-Two weeks before 'Delicious.' Tree-Moderate vigor; standard bearing habit, somewhat thin branched; medium size. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; high level of resistance to fire blight; high level of resistance to cedar-apple rust; good level of resistance to powdery mildew. Problems-Small fruit size if not properly thinned; overcropping; does not color well inside canopy; licorice aroma; longevity in storage variable, inadequate in some years, short shelf life out of storage; tendency for caylx end cracking when over-mature; varietal mix-up caused major nursery to supply an inferior scab resistant cultivar as 'Priscilla' for six years during the early 1980s. Although scab resistant, the bogus 'Priscilla' significantly damaged the cultivar's image. General Recommendation-Suggested for small scale commercial plantings and for specialty markets where the unique flavor can be used as an advantage and fruit is not stored for extended periods.

Co-op 5 (PRI 673-20 = tetraploid 'Golden Delicious' x PRI 14-152) Introduced as 'Sir Prize' (Williams et al. 1975) U.S. Plant Patent No. 3,988

Fruit-70 to 76 mm or more (2-3/4 to 3+ in.); short conic to long conic with calyx points; bright finish, 100% green yellow to lemon yellow with an occasional slight red blush; fine grained, lemon yellow colored crisp yet very tender flesh; moderately to spritely acid, and rich in flavor with distinctive aroma; very juicy; very good dessert quality. Large fruit size. Smooth, conic shaped, very attractive fruit with limited russet. Annual cropping. Retains quality for 6 months in refrigerated storage. Fruit hangs on the tree very well. Season of Maturity-With 'Delicious.' Tree-Vigorous, spreading growth habit, moderately spurry, 90 degree crotch angles, moderately large size tree. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; good level of resistance to powdery mildew; moderately susceptible to cedar-apple rust; susceptible to fire blight. Problems-Tender (yet crisp) flesh is extremely sensitive to bruising, which makes it unacceptable as a commercial cultivar, although fruit size, finish, and fine quality make it ideal for the home garden; susceptibility to cedar-apple rust is a problem in some areas; susceptibility to fire blight is a problem in some areas; triploid with unviable pollen so it requires an additional pollinizor. General Recommendation-Suggested for limited use in pick-your-own operations and as a home grower cultivar. 'Sir Prize' is currently the only widely available, yellow scab resistant apple in 'Golden Delicious' season.

Co-op 6 (PRI 1500-101 = PRI 558-1 x 'Mollie's Delicious') (Williams et al. 1972)

Fruit-70 to 76 mm (2-3/4 to 3 in.); conic to long conic; green-yellow to yellow ground color; bright finish; slightly striped 75% light to medium red; fine grained, tough skin; cream colored, moderately tough, tender flesh; spritely acid, bland; juicy. Season of Maturity-Five and one-half weeks before 'Delicious.' Tree-Vigorous, somewhat lanky and bare wooded branches. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; good level of resistance to powdery mildew; susceptible to cedar-apple rust; susceptible to fire blight. Problems-Acidic, insufficient flavor; tender flesh; poor coloring; uneven ripening; heavy fruit drop; inadequate storage life; growth habit; and susceptibility to secondary diseases. General Recommendation-Problems too severe for further consideration. Discarded at Lafayette.

Co-op 7 (PRI 2023-1 = PRI 1018-9 x N.J. 154955) (Williams et al. 1972)

Fruit-70 to 76 mm or more (2-3/4 to 3+ in.); round to short conic; yellow ground color; bright finish; heavily splashed, slightly striped, mottled in some years, 70 to 90% medium red, attractive; medium grained; cream colored crisp and breaking flesh; sweet to mildly sub-acid and slightly aromatic in flavor; moderately juicy. Large fruit size. Fruit hangs on the tree until over-ripe. Season of Maturity-Five weeks before 'Delicious.' Tree-Vigorous, highly vegetative and branching, moderate tendency for biennial bearing. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; susceptible to powdery mildew; highly resistant to cedar-apple rust; moderately resistant to fire blight. Problems-Bland sweet, insufficient flavor; poor color development in shaded canopy; growth habit; and susceptibility to secondary diseases. General Recommendation-Problems too severe for further consideration. Discarded at Lafayette.

Co-op 8 (FRI 1326-1 = PRI 558-1 x 'Mollie's Delicious') (Williams et al. 1972)

Fruit-76 mm or more (3+ in.); round to conic with distinctive, strongly pointed, narrow calyx end; green-yellow to pale-yellow ground color; very bright finish; blushed 60 to 85% light to medium red, very attractive; medium grained, cream colored, firm to crisp and slightly breaking flesh; mildly sub-acid, bland; juicy. Some tendency to drop when ripe. Season of Maturity-Two and one-half weeks before 'Delicious.' Tree-moderate vigor, spreading branches with 90 degree crotch angles, uniformly distributed, large fruit; annual light to moderate cropping. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; good level of resistance to powdery mildew; highly resistant to cedar-apple rust; moderately resistant to fire blight. Problems-Bland insufficient flavor, inadequate storage life for season, sparse cropping, tendency to drop. General Recommendation-Problems too severe for further consideration. Discarded at Lafayette. Brazilian reports indicate low chilling requirement. Suggested for further testing in regions with moderate winter chilling.

Co-op 9 (PRI 1677-2 = Starking 'Delicious' x PRI 877-2) (Williams et al. 1972)

Fruit-76 mm or more (3+ in.); variable, short conic to round or slightly oblate; green-yellow to yellow ground color; bright finish; striped 90 to 100% medium to dark, red to purple-red, very attractive; coarse grained, cream colored, firm to crisp, moderately tough flesh; sweet to mildly sub-acid, bland, slightly aromatic flavor; juicy. Flavor and quality similar to, but less than 'Delicious.' Fruit hangs on the tree until over-ripe. Season of Maturity-One to one-half week before 'Delicious.' Tree-Moderate vigor, spreading branches with 90 degree crotch angles, strongly biennial. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; good level of resistance to powdery mildew; susceptible to cedar-apple rust; moderately resistant to fire blight. Problems-Bland insufficient flavor; astringent at harvest; tough flesh; alternate bearing, unreliable cropping. General Recommendation-Problems too severe for further consideration. Discarded at Lafayette.

Co-op 10 (PRI 1659-10 ='Starking Delicious' x PRI 610-2) (Williams et al. 1972) U.S. Plant Patent No. 4,321

Fruit-70 to 76 mm or more (2-3/4 to 3+ in.); conic with pronounced calyx end points; very bright finish; bright red blushed 100% self yellow to pale-yellow, very attractive; very smooth, nonrusseted skin; totally inconspicuous lenticels; medium grained, cream to pale yellow colored, firm to crisp, slightly tender flesh; sweet to mildly sub-acid, bland, slightly spicy flavor; juicy. Flavor and quality similar to, but less than 'Delicious.' Softens and becomes mealy in storage. Season of Maturity-With 'Delicious.' Tree-Moderately vigorous, strong, thick, heavily spurred branches with 90 degree crotch angles, excellent growth habit. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; moderately resistant to powdery mildew; highly resistant to cedar-apple rust; moderately resistant to fire blight. Problems-Bland insufficient flavor; tender flesh, alternate bearing, extremely heavy fruit drop, inadequate storage life for the season. Highly susceptible to leaf bronzing damage by the European red mite Panonychus ulmi (Koch.). General Recommendation-Problems too severe for further consideration. Discarded at Lafayette.

Co-op 11 (PRI 1947-104 = Ill.#2 ('Winesap' o.p.) x PRI 1042-100) (Williams et al. 1972)

Fruit-70 to 76 mm (2-3/4 to 3 in.); conic to long conic with pronounced calyx end points; yellow ground color; bright finish; slightly striped, slightly splashed, 75 to 95% medium red, attractive; medium grained, pale yellow colored, crisp and breaking tough flesh; mildly sub-acid, slightly spicy and full rich flavor; juicy. Flavor is fair at harvest, maturing to good after a month of storage. Fruit hangs on the tree very well. Season of Maturity-Two weeks after 'Delicious.' Tree-Moderately vigorous, slightly upright, thin branched, very sparse cropping. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; moderately susceptible to powdery mildew; highly resistant to cedar-apple rust; resistant to fire blight. Problems-Sparse cropping; tough flesh texture; thin but tough skin; astringence and slight bitterness at harvest; susceptible to fruit storage scald. General Recommendation-Problems too severe for further consideration. Discarded at Lafayette.

Co-op 12 (PRI 2175-25 ='Raritan' x PRI 1018-101) (Williams et al. 1975) U.S. Plant Patent No. 4,359

Fruit-70 to 76 mm or more (2-3/4 to 3+ in.); round with wide, open calyx; cuticle covered with pronounced glaucous, waxy, bloom; green yellow to pale yellow ground color; very bright, glossy finish; moderately striped, 60 to 90% light to medium red, attractive; medium grained, light cream colored, crisp and slightly breaking flesh; mildly to moderately acid, slightly spicy, with full rich flavor; very juicy. Flavor breaks down and is unpalatable after one month in refrigerated storage. Uniformly shaped, large fruit evenly distributed throughout tree canopy. Season of Maturity-Eight weeks before 'Delicious.' Tree-Moderately vigorous, somewhat weeping growth habit, some tendency for tip bearing. In 1978, Co-op 12 showed minimal damage, in a test winter at St. Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec, Canada, when the majority of the apple collection showed significant winter damage. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; moderately resistant to powdery mildew; susceptible to cedar-apple rust; moderately resistant to fire blight. Problems-Short storage-life, uneven ripening, some tendency to drop when ripe, little color develops inside tree canopy, develops full color only when over-mature (see also-Tree and Degree of Resistance to Disease). General Recommendation-Discarded at Lafayette. Resistant to winter cold injury and expected to be well adapted in the North Central U.S., Southern Canada, and similar climates. After initial observations, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Bålsgard, has concluded that Co-op 12 is well adapted under Swedish conditions, and recommends the cultivar for home grower use.

Co-op 13 (PRI 2175-7 = 'Ratitan' x PRI 1018-101) Introduced as 'Redfree' (Williams et al. 1981) U.S. Plant Patent No. 4,322

Fruit-64 to 76 mm (2-1/2 to 3 in.); slightly oblate to round, regular; light green to pale yellow ground color; washed and faintly striped, very bright finish; 70 to 95% medium red, medium grained light yellow to cream colored, firm, crisp and breaking yet slightly tender flesh; mildly acid to sweet, slightly rich and pleasant flavor; juicy; very mild, good dessert quality. Moderate fruit size. Annual cropping. Retains quality for 1 month or more in refrigerated storage. Fruit hangs on the tree until well over-ripe. Tree-Vigorous, spreading growth habit, 90 degree crotch angles, moderately spurry. Slightly leggy branches with a limited basal portion of the branches bare-wooded. Moderately large sized tree. In 1978, 'Redfree' showed minimal damage in a test winter at St. Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec, Canada, when the majority of the apple collection showed significant winter damage. Other reports from North Dakota, Minnesota, and Canada indicate that 'Redfree' is resistant to winter cold injury. Season of Maturity-Seven weeks before 'Delicious.' Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; field immune to cedar-apple rust; moderate level of resistance to powdery mildew; good level of resistance to fire blight. Problems-Powdery mildew may warrant control only under severe disease pressure; some feel that the flavor is too mild and bland; uneven ripening, requiring two or more pickings; slight tendency toward biennial bearing habit after heavy fruit set; some tendency to set heavy crops, resulting in reduced fruit size if not properly thinned; somewhat leggy growth habit with manageable amount of undesirable bare wood. General Recommendation-Suggested for commercial use, as well as small scale and home grower plantings. Produces relatively high quality, low-acid fruit, with pronounced color and adequate storage-life for early entry into the summer apple market. Resistant to winter cold injury and expected to be well adapted in the North Central U.S., Southern Canada, and similar climates.

Co-op 14 (PRI 1325-101 = PRI 10-147 x 'Moilie's Delicious') (Williams et al. 1975) U.S. Plant Patent No. 4,320

Fruit-64 to 76 mm (2-1/2 to 3 in.); long conic; yellow ground color; bright finish; slightly striped, splashed, 75% medium red to slightly orange, attractive; fine grained, pale yellow colored, very firm, crisp and breaking flesh at harvest, softening and becoming mealy after one and one-half months in storage; sweet to mildly sub-acid, bland flavor; moderately juicy. Heavy cropping with slight tendency for biennial bearing. Fruit hangs on the tree until over-ripe. Tendency to soften on the tree when over-ripe. Season of Maturity-Six weeks before 'Delicious.' Tree-Moderately vigorous, moderately spurred, slightly upright branches. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; highly resistant to powdery mildew; field immune to cedar-apple rust; moderately resistant to fire blight. Problems-Bland, insufficient flavor; slightly astringent and/or bitter flesh; heavily splashed or mottled color pattern; stem end fruit cracking; tendency to overcrop with small fruit size. General Recommendation-Discarded at Lafayette. Brazilian reports indicate low chilling requirement. Suggested for further testing in regions with moderate winter chilling.

Co-op 15 (PRI 1569-100 = N.J. 27 x PRI 612-1) (Williams et al. 1975)

Fruit-64 to 70 mm (2-1/2 to 2-3/4 in.); short conic to long conic; pale yellow ground color; bright finish, slightly striped, blushed, 80 to 95% bright medium red, attractive; thin, somewhat tough skin, occasionally with large white or russeted conspicuous lenticels; moderate grained, pale yellow colored, firm, crisp and breaking flesh at harvest, becoming tender after storage; mildly to moderately sub-acid, spicy, full rich flavor; juicy. Moderate cropping with tendency for biennial bearing. Retains quality into December in refrigerated storage. Season of Maturity-Two and one-half weeks before 'Delicious.' Tree-Moderately vigorous, slightly upright, moderately spurred branches, with some bare wood at their base; very desirable growth habit; tendency for fruit to drop when ripe. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; highly resistant to powdery mildew; moderately susceptible to cedar-apple rust; moderately resistant to fire blight. Problems-Moderate to small fruit size; limited storage-life for season; somewhat tender flesh after one month in storage; tendency for fruit drop. General Recommendation-Suggested for advanced testing in the Pacific Northwestern U.S., west of the Cascade Mountains.

Co-op 16 (PRI 2174-3 = PRI 764 x PRI 672) (Williams et al. 1975) U.S. Plant Patent No. 4,499

Fruit-70 to 76 mm or more (2-3/4 to 3+ in.); conic, classic 'Golden Delicious' shape; moderately bright finish; occasionally red blushed 100% self yellow with small yet conspicuous russeted lenticels, very attractive; fine grained ale yellow colored, firm, very crisp and breaking flesh; mildly sub-acid, slightly spicy, full rich flavor; very juicy. Uniformly shaped, large fruit distributed evenly throughout the canopy. Flesh texture is maintained for 5 months or more in refrigerated storage. Fruit hangs on the tree very well. Season of Maturity-With 'Delicious.' Tree-Moderately vigorous, thin branched and somewhat bushy. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; highly susceptible to powdery mildew; susceptible to cedar-apple rust; moderately susceptible to fire blight. Problems-Inadequate storage life for season. Even though crisp breaking flesh texture is maintained for more than three months in refrigerated storage, the sugar and flavor in the fruit are converted into starchy, "potato-like" flavor after storage, and develop an extremely greasy cuticle. If harvested only slightly over-ripe, the apple becomes greasy and "potato-like" after one or two months in storage. Poor growth habit and susceptibility to secondary diseases. General Recommendation-Problems too severe for further consideration. Discarded at Lafayette.

Co-op 17 (PRI 1689-110 = Ill.#2 ('Winesap' o.p.) x PRI 668-100) (Williams et al. 1975)

Fruit-70 to 76 mm (2-3/4 to 3 in.); short conic to slightly oblate-conic; bright, smooth, russet-free finish; burnt-orange blushed 100% self pale yellow with inconspicuous lenticels, attractive; thick tough skin; fine grained, pale yellow colored, very firm, moderately tough, crisp flesh; sweet to mildly sub-acid, slightly aromatic, bland flavor; juicy. Heavy annual cropping. Fruit bangs on the tree extremely well. Retains quality for six months or more in refrigerated storage. Fruit tend to be too small with a heavy crop, unless thinned. Season of Maturity-Three and one-half weeks after 'Delicious.' Tree-Moderately vigorous; smaller than average tree size; moderately spurry with some tendency for branches to weep; some tendency for tip bearing, some bare wood on branch bases. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; moderately resistant to powdery mildew; susceptible to cedar-apple rust; moderately resistant to fire blight. Problems-Bland, insufficient flavor; tough skin; tough flesh texture; undesirable growth habit. (also see Degree of Resistance to Disease). General Recommendation-Problems too severe for further consideration. Discarded at Lafayette. Goonewardene and Williams (1988) showed that Co-op 17 possesses resistance to three different insect pests.

Co-op 18 (PRI 1983-207 = N.J. 60837 x PRI 669-205 (669NJ5)) (Williams et al. 1975)

Fruit-64 to 70 mm (2-1/2 to 2-3/4 in.); short conic to round; cream to pale yellow ground color; bright finish, washed, 50 to 80% light to medium red; moderate grained, cream to ale yellow colored, firm, crisp flesh; fair to good quality; very juicy. Heavy annual cropping. Quality retained in refrigerated storage. Fruit hangs well on the tree. Cooked apple slices are firm, translucent, and gold in color. Season of Maturity-One week after 'Delicious.' Storage-life believed to be three months but conclusive data unavailable. Tree-Moderately vigorous; spreading; wide crotch angles; thick, semi-spur type branches. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; moderately resistant to powdery mildew; moderately resistant. to cedar-apple rust; very susceptible to fire blight. Problems-Moderate to small fruit size; moderate appearance and quality; susceptibility to fire blight. General Recommendation-Problems too severe for further consideration. Discarded at Lafayette.

Co-op 19 (PRI 2318-104 = N.J. 57249 x PRI &54-100) (Dayton et al. 1977)

Fruit-70 to 76 mm (2-3/4 to 3 in.); oblate-round; cream to pale yellow ground color; very smooth, glossy finish, slightly striped, washed, 50 to 95% light red to pink, attractive; fine grained, pale yellow colored, somewhat crisp yet tender flesh at harvest, softening after storage; mildly sub-acid, spicy, full rich flavor; very juicy. Light cropping. Retains quality for three to four weeks in refrigerated storage. Season of Maturity-Eight weeks before Delicious.' Tree-Vigorous, slightly upright, weeping downward from the top. Strong tendency to bear clustered fruit on the tips of branches; tendency for fruit to drop when ripe. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; highly resistant to powdery mildew; highly resistant to cedar-apple rust; moderately resistant to fire blight. Problems-Tender to soft flesh texture; limited storage-life; poor color development; uneven ripening; tendency for fruit drop; and poor growth habit. General Recommendation-Problems too severe for further consideration. Discarded at Lafayette.

Co-op 20 (PRI 2318-104 ='Crandall' x PRI 688-100) (Dayton et al. 1977)

Fruit-64 to 70 mm (2-1/2 to 2-3/4 in.); oblate-round; pare yellow to deep canary yellow ground color; smooth, glossy finish; striped, washed, 50 to 80% medium to light red or orange, unique; fine grained, deep yellow colored, firm, very crisp and breaking flesh at harvest, retaining this texture up to one and one-half months in storage; mildly to moderately sub-acid, spicy, very full rich flavor; juicy. Retains quality for two months or more in refrigerated storage. Extremely sparse cropping with biennial tendency. Season of Maturity-Six to seven weeks before 'Delicious.' Tree-Moderately vigorous slightly upright, very thin branches with prolific branching producing a very brushy, undesirable tree; strong tendency for fruit to drop when ripe. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; susceptible to powdery mildew; very susceptible to cedar-apple rust; moderately resistant to fire blight. Problems-Sparse bearing, uneven ripening; tendency for fruit drop; poor growth habit; and susceptibility to secondary diseases. General Recommendation-Problems too severe for further consideration. Discarded at Lafayette.

Co-op 21 (PRI 2259-100 = N.J. 123249 x PRI 1235-100) Introduced as 'Dayton' (Korban et al. 1988) U.S. Plant Patent No. 5,584

Fruit-67 to 76 mm or more (2-1/2 to 3+ in.); slightly oblate to round or short-conic; green to pale yellow ground color; washed, extremely bright and shiny, 75 to 95% medium red; fine grained, pale yellow to cream colored, firm, crisp yet somewhat tender flesh, texture similar to 'Jonathan'; slightly spicy, mildly to moderately acid, and moderately rich in flavor; flavor resembles 'Prima'; juicy; very good dessert quality. Large fruit size. Attractive, "commercial" looking fruit. Retains quality for six weeks or more in refrigerated storage, longer than 'Prima.' Season of Maturity-Four to five weeks before 'Delicious.' Tree-Vigorous, moderately upright, moderately spreading tree. Standard bearing habit. Moderately large sized tree. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; moderate resistance to powdery mildew; moderate resistance to fire blight; moderately susceptible to cedar-apple rust. Problems-Susceptibility to cedar-apple rust is a problem in some areas. Powdery mildew may warrant control in some seasons. Fruit does not color well inside canopy. Some consider longevity in storage to be inadequate, but it keeps longer than 'Prima.' Prone to bitter-pit under appropriate conditions. Uneven ripening, requiring two pickings. Moderate cropping; unsure about the cropping potential in some areas; we have observed better-cropping an deep, loamy, fertile soils. General Recommendation-Suggested for advanced commercial testing, as well as small scale and home grower plantings. Produces relatively high quality, moderately acid fruit, with pronounced color and adequate storage-life for early entry into the fall apple market. Develops more color and less acid than 'Prima,' ripening in approximately the same season, a slightly more tender flesh texture and slightly longer storage-life.

Co-op 22 (PRI 2016-100 = PRI 855-102 x N.J. 31) Introduced as 'Jonafree' (Dayton et al. 1979) U. S. Plant Patent No. 4,633

Fruit-64 to 76 mm (2-1/2 to 3 in.) averaging 70; round, regular; green yellow to pale yellow ground color; washed without stripes, very bright, 75 to 95% medium red; medium grained, light yellow to cream colored, firm, crisp and slightly breaking flesh, slightly tough until full ripe; slightly spicy, moderately acid, and moderately rich in flavor; juicy; very good dessert quality. Less susceptible to powdery mildew, fire blight, and cedar-apple rust than 'Jonathan.' Not prone to bitter-pit or 'Jonathan' spot. Higher percent red color than 'Jonathan.' Flavor similar to 'Jonathan,' but less acid. Moderate fruit size. Annual cropping. Quality retention in storage similar to 'Jonathan,' better in some years. Develops flavor breakdown to objectionable aldehyde in some years, after 2 and 1/2 to 3 months of storage. Season of Maturity-With 'Jonathan,' one week before 'Delicious.' Tree-Moderately vigorous and spreading, somewhat upright, leggy branches with a significant basal portion of the branches bare-wooded. Medium sized tree. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; moderately susceptible to powdery mildew; moderately susceptible to cedar-apple rust; moderately susceptible to fire blight. Problems-Susceptibility to cedar-apple rust, mildew, and fire blight are all problems in some areas; somewhat bushy growth habit, with significant lengths of bare wood. Somewhat difficult to train and manage; usually requires two pickings; small fruit size if not properly thinned. General Recommendation-Recommended for commercial use as a disease resistant substitute for 'Jonathan' in areas where this cultivar is grown, as well as small scale and home grower plantings. Produces high quality, 'Jonathan'-type fruit with more red color, less acid, firmer texture, and no 'Jonathan' spot.

Co-op 23 (PRI 2845-1 = PRI 1018-101 x NJ 50) Introduced as 'Williams' Pride' Janick et al. 1988) U.S. Plant Patent No. 6268

Fruit-67 to 76 mm or more (2-1/2 to 3+ in.); variable size; round to conic, variable shape; lime green to pale yellow ground color; washed and faintly striped, bright, 70 to 99% medium to dark red or purple-red; conspicuous, slightly sunken lenticels; medium to coarse grained, cream colored, firm, very crisp and breaking flesh; moderately to mildly sub-acid, slightly spicy, full rich flavor; juicy; excellent summer dessert quality. Moderate to large fruit size. Fall quality in the middle of the summer. Annual cropping, with slight biennial tendencies. Retains quality and crisp flesh texture for 6 weeks or more in refrigerated storage. Season of Maturity-Seven to eight weeks before 'Delicious.' Tree-Vigorous, spreading, 90deg crotch angles, very spurry wood. Similar in growth habit to 'Empire,' but not quite as spurry. Moderately large tree size. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; field immune to cedar-apple rust; high level of resistance to fire blight; good level of resistance to powdery mildew. Problems-Severe watercore may be a significant problem in some seasons. Slight bitter pit observed in a few seasons. Severe bitter pit was observed on young trees with their first crop on MM-111 rootstock, on very sandy soil, under heavy nitrogen and irrigation. Fruit borne in clusters on short spurs, may tend to be pushed off as they swell, giving some loss to dropped fruit. Slightly coarse flesh texture. Uneven ripening will require two or more pickings. General Recommendation-Suggested for advanced commercial testing on soils where nutrient deficiencies do not predispose trees to bitter-pit. as well as small scale and home grower plantings. Produced large high quality fruit, ripening with the earliest red apple cultivars and relatively long storage-life for early entry and extended use in the summer apple market. Not recommended on MM-111 rootstock, on bitter-pit prone soils, or under high nitrogen fertilization.

Co-op 24 (PRI 2058-2 = N.J. 125355 x 'Prima') (Williams et al. 1984)

Fruit-64 to 70 mm (2-1/2 to 2-3/4 in.); variable, oblate-round or short-conic and slightly lobed, wide calyx cavity with open calyx; green-yellow to sale yellow ground color; bright glossy finish; washed 75 to 95% medium to dark, red to purple-red, very attractive; fine grained, pale yellow to cream colored, firm, very crisp and breaking flesh; mildly sub-acid, slightly spicy. Slightly aromatic, moderately rich flavor at peak; juicy. Fruit hangs on the tree until over-ripe. Annual, moderate cropping. Season of Maturity-One-half to one week before 'Delicious.' Tree-Moderate vigor, slightly upright, spreading to rangy, growth habit with limber branches; semi-spur type bearing habit with some bare wood at branch base. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; highly resistant to powdery mildew; susceptible to cedar-apple rust; moderately resistant to fire blight. Problems-Insufficient storage for season; although flesh texture is maintained for many months, after one and one-half to two months in refrigerated storage, flavor breaks down to undesirable aldehyde and becomes unpalatable; with a large crop, fruit tend to be small and flavor tends to be bland and insufficient; flavor peaks only after two to four weeks in refrigerated storage. General Recommendation-Problems too severe for further consideration. Discarded at Lafayette.

Co-op 25 (PRI 27124 = PCF 2-134 x PRI 669-205 (669NJ5)) (Williams et al. 1984)

Fruit-76 mm or more (3+ in.); round to short-conic; green-yellow to yellow ground color; moderate to bright finish; slightly splashed, washed 75 to 90% light to medium red to orange; moderate grained, pale yellow to cream colored, extremely firm, very crisp and breaking flesh; sweet to mildly sub-acid, slightly spicy, fruity, rich, pleasant flavor; juicy. Open calyx tube. Somewhat bland at harvest, flavor improves greatly after one to two months in storage. Retains quality in refrigerated storage for seven months or more. Co-op 25 is one of the longest storing selections to originate from the PRI program. Fruit hangs on the tree very well. Observed to be susceptible to apple maggot in late-season unsprayed blocks. Season of Maturity-One to one-half week before 'Delicious.' Tree-Moderate vigor, spreading with 90 degree crotch angles, somewhat thin, slightly weeping branches with moderately bare-wooded bases; fruit tend to be borne on long spurs, with some slight tendency for tip-bearing, and some tendency for fruit to be borne in clusters; slight biennial tendency. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; moderately resistant to powdery mildew; highly resistant to cedar-apple rust; highly susceptible to fire blight. Problems-Mediocre growth habit (partially overcome by ability of fruit to hang very well); tendency for reduced fruit size and reduction in flavor with a heavy crop; high fire blight susceptibility. Low level of moldy-core observed under the absence of fungicidal sprays. General Recommendation-Suggested for advanced testing in Oregon, Washington, U.S.; British Columbia, Canada; and other areas where fire blight is not a major concern.

Co-op 26 (PRI 1659-100 = 'Starking Delicious' x PRI 610-2) (Williams et al. 1984)

Fruit-Variable size and shape: 64 to 76 mm (2-1/2 to 3 in.); round or short-conic to long-conic; green-yellow to pale-yellow ground color; very bright, glossy finish; washed 75 to 100% medium red, very attractive; fine grained, cream colored, firm to crisp, yet slightly tender flesh, texture varies from year to year; sweet to mildly sub-acid, somewhat bland, pleasant flavor; very juicy. Quality peaks soon after harvest. Fruit hangs on the tree well. Annual heavy cropping. initial tests on dwarfing rootstocks have shown tendency for watercore. Season of Maturity-With 'Delicious.' Tree-Moderate vigor, slightly upright with wide, strong crotch angles, and thick, heavily spurred branches; semi-spur type, desirable growth habit. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; highly resistant to powdery mildew; highly resistant to cedar-apple rust; highly resistant to fire blight. Shown to be sensitive to Stem Pitting and Chlorotic Leaf Spot viruses. Prone to "measles" caused by boron deficiency/acid soil conditions. Problems-Mediocre flavor, variable fruit size, shape, and year to year quality; insufficient storage-life for season: in most years becoming tender, mealy, and unpalatable by mid-December in refrigerated storage; poor color development inside tree canopy. General Recommendation-Problems too severe for further consideration. Discarded at Lafayette.

Co-op 27 (PRI 1947-105 = Ill.#2 ('Winesap' o.p.) x PRI 1042-100) (Korban et al. 1990)

Fruit-64 to 76 mm (2-1/2 to 3 in.); round to oblate-round; pale yellow ground color; moderate to bright finish; splashed and occasionally mottled, 90% medium to dark red, attractive; fine grained, cream colored, firm to crisp flesh and slightly tough at harvest, mellowing to firm and moderately crisp in storage; moderately to sprightly sub-acid, spicy, full, rich, flavor; juicy. Very good quality. Open calyx. Retains flesh texture and quality for six months or more in refrigerated storage. Fruit hangs on the tree very well. Moderate to heavy annual cropping. Uniformly moderate to large size. Winter, storage apple with uniform ripening and single harvest. Bloom Period-Early-midseason. Season of Maturity-One week after 'Delicious.' Tree-Moderate vigor, moderately upright, full spur-type, with strong branches. Bears fruit in short spurs. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; moderately resistant to powdery mildew; field immune to cedar-apple rust; highly resistant to fire blight. Problems-Slightly tough flesh at harvest; sprightly acid; occasional mottled color; thick, stiff stem. General Recommendation-Strongly suggested for advanced testing.

Co-op 28 (PRI 2929-104 = PRI 1982 x 'Prima') (Korban et al. 1990)

Fruit-60 to 70 mm (2-1/4 to 2-3/4 in.); variable shape-round to oblate-conic; green-yellow to yellow ground color; bright finish; slightly striped, washed, 75 to 90% medium red; occasionally conspicuous lenticels; medium grained, white to cream colored, firm, crisp and breaking flesh; mildly sub-acid, slightly spicy, full, rich, flavor; moderately juicy. Retains flesh texture and quality for up to four months in refrigerated storage. Fruit hangs on the tree very well, retaining quality and texture for several weeks on tree. Heavy cropping with strong biennial tendency. Bloom Period-Early to midseason. Season of Maturity-One to one and one-half weeks before 'Delicious.' Tree-Vigorous, upright and spreading, somewhat limber, with blind wood in basal portion of branches. Fruit borne on short to moderate length spurs. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; moderately resistant to powdery mildew; moderately resistant to cedar-apple rust; highly susceptible to fire blight. Problems-Limber wood (partially overcome by ability of fruit to hang very well); tendency for reduced fruit size and reduction in flavor with a heavy crop; susceptibility to fire blight. General Recommendation-Suggested for advanced testing in areas where fire blight is not a problem.

Co-op 29 (PRI 2050-4 = 'Golden Delicious' x PRI 1050-201 (1050NJI)) (Korban et al. 1990)

Fruit-70 to 76 mm or more (2-3/4 to 3+ in.), round to short-conic; moderate to bright finish; occasional mottled, pink to orange blush, 100% pale yellow, attractive; moderate stem-end russet, occasionally conspicuous, russeted lenticels; medium to coarse grained, cream colored, very firm, very crisp and breaking flesh; moderately to sprightly sub-acid, mellowing in refrigerated storage; spicy, full, rich, flavor; juicy. Very good quality. Retains flesh texture and quality for five months or more in refrigerated storage. Fruit hangs on the tree until over ripe. Moderate to heavy cropping. Winter, storage apple. Season of Maturity-Two and one-half weeks after 'Delicious. Tree- Moderate to high vigor, slightly upright, branches with lengths of bare-wood at their bases; some slight tendency for fruit to be borne in clusters; slight biennial tendency. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; moderately resistant to powdery mildew; highly resistant to cedar-apple rust; highly resistant to fire blight. Problems-Some tendency for fruit to be borne in clusters; leggy, bare-wooded branches may make training somewhat difficult; stem end russet and mottled blush detract from appearance. General Recommendation-Strongly suggested for advanced testing.

Co-op 30 (PRI 2693-1 = PRI 1661-2 x PRI 1661-1) (Korban et al. 1990)

Fruit-64 to 76 min (2-1/2 to 3 in.); round to elongate and occasionally oblong; green yellow to deep yellow ground color; very bright, glossy finish; washed 80 to 100% medium red to slightly orange, very attractive; inconspicuous lenticels; fine grained, pale yellow to cream colored, firm, crisp and breaking flesh; moderately thick, tough skin; sprightly sub-acid at harvest mellowing to moderately sub-acid in storage; spicy, very full, rich, flavor; juicy, Very good quality. Retains flesh texture and quality for six months or more in refrigerated storage. Fruit hangs on the tree very well. Uniformly moderate to large size. Winter, storage apple with uniform ripening, moderate to heavy annual cropping, and single harvest. Flavor peaks after one or two months in refrigerated storage. Bloom Period-Late season. Tree-Moderate to high vigor, spreading, round top. Fruit borne singly on moderate length spurs distributed uniformly throughout canopy. Season of Maturity-two and one-half weeks after 'Delicious.' Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; moderately resistant to powdery mildew; highly resistant to cedar-apple rust; highly resistant to fire blight. Problems-Sprightly acid at harvest; quality only becomes exceptional after storage. General Recommendation-Strongly suggested for advanced testing.

Co-op 31 (PRI 2463-101 = Rock 41-112 x PRI 841-103) (Korban et al. 1990)

Fruit-Variable size 60 to 76 mm (2-1/4 to 3 in.); round; green yellow to yellow ground color; appearance varies from year to year, performs best under hot, dry conditions (excellent performance in 1988 and 1990 droughts); dull to moderate or bright finish; splashed and striped, mottled with green in some seasons, 80 to 100% dark purple-red; tendency or heavy scarf-skin; medium to coarse grained, cream colored, firm, very crisp and breaking flesh; relatively thin, palatable skin; mildly sub-acid; spicy, full, rich, flavor; juicy. Very good quality. Retains flesh texture and quality for six months or more in refrigerated storage. In the 1989 storage season, fruit quality was still very good after eight months in refrigerated storage. Some tendency to drop when ripe. Winter, storage apple with uniform ripening, moderate to heavy cropping, and single harvest. Biennial tendency after heavy cropping. Flavor peaks after one month in refrigerated storage. Bloom Period-Midseason. Season of Maturity-Two weeks after 'Delicious.' Tree-Moderate vigor, spreading, round top. Disease Resistance-Field immune to apple scab; moderately resistant to powdery mildew; moderately susceptible to cedar-apple rust; good resistance to fire blight; susceptible to Botryosphaeria rots in storage. Problems-Unattractive in most seasons; dull, scarfy skin promotes dehydration and shriveling in storage; some tendency to drop when ripe; strong biennial habit and variable fruit size indicates thinning is required. General Recommendation-Suggested for testing.

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