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Williams, P.H. 1990. Cruciferous oilseeds. p. 228. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), Advances in new crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

Cruciferous Oilseeds

Paul H. Williams

The diversity of form, usage and adaptability among Brassica species has generated wide interest in crucifers as potential new crops. Among these are various interrelated Brassica species, Raphanus sativus, Eruca sativa, Crambe abyssinica and others. Brassica oil known as rapeseed oil is traded world wide. Brassica seed low in glucosinolates and erucic acid, known as Canola, yields high quality edible oil and high protein seed cake. Some rapeseed cultivars are rich in erucic acid (22:1) a component of resins and lubricating oils for engines and steel manufacture. The brassicas provide promising systems for combining technologies in cell and molecular biology with generics and breeding for the creation and improvement of new crucifer crops. Erucic and other fatty acid synthesis is under simple genetic control. The regulation of genes for seed storage proteins, and gene controlling pollen incompatibility and cytoplasmic male sterility is under intensive study The amenability of brassicas to protoplast fusion, plant regeneration and transformation has resulted in the development of stocks with specific antibiotic and herbicide insensitivity. The development of rapid cycling populations of major crucifers has resulted in the formation of the Crucier Genetics Cooperative (CrGC), an organization sharing information and crucifer generic stocks globally Through the CrGC comprehensive mapping of RFLPs, isozymes, morphological and disease resistance markers are being facilitated.

Fribourg, H.A., C.R. Graves, G.N. Rhodes, Jr., J.F. Bradley, and E.C. Bernard Gorczanski. 1990. Rapeseed performance in west Tennessee. p. 228. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), Advances in new crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

Rapeseed Performance in West Tennessee

H.A. Fribourg, C.R. Graves, G.N. Rhodes, Jr., J.F. Bradley, and E.C. Bernard Gorczanski

Fall-seeded rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) was studied in five field experiments at Milan in northwest Tennessee during 1986-87. Yields ranged from 2150 kg/ha for 'Viking' to 3140 for 'Gorczanski'. In each of three N rate experiments, there were no interaction effects on rapeseed yield between fall N (0, 34, 67 kg/ha) and spring N (0, 45, 90, 135, 180 kg/ha) applications. Yield after fallow was increased by spring but not by fall applications of N. No difference was observed from fall or spring N applied after corn. Yield after grain sorghum was increased by both fall and spring N. There were no seeding date x seeding rate, seeding date x cultivars or seeding rate x cultivar interactions. There was no yield difference between 5.6 and 11.2 kg/ha seeding rates. September seedings yielded about 10% more than October seedings. Atrazine reduced rapeseed yield at 0.25 lb a.i./acre or more.

Heidker, J. and C.F. Klopfenstein. 1990. High glucosinolate rapeseed meal as a supplemental protein source in finishing cattle diets. p. 229. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), Advances in new crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

High Glucosinolate Rapeseed Meal as a Supplemental Protein Source in Finishing Cattle Diets

Jean Heidker and C.F. Klopfenstein

High erucic acid rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) has important industrial oil applications. However, the resultant meal contains high levels of anti-nutrient glucosinolates, which can also break down into bitter tasting, bad smelling compounds that can make feeds containing it unpalatable. In this experiment, we evaluated possible deleterious nutritional effects of the high glucosinolate meal in finishing cattle (700-1000 lbs) diets. Forty-eight steers were fed diets with the protein supplement comprised of 33, 67, or 1 00% rapeseed meal substituted for soybean meal. Data showed no differences in average daily gains and feed efficiencies. Carcass quality was better for steers fed the diet containing 100% rapeseed meal supplement, with those animals having the highest percent choice, whereas those fed 100% soybean meal supplement had the lowest percent choice.

Lauer, J.G. 1990. Influence of irrigation timing and nitrogen on growth, yield, and quality of rape. p. 229. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), Advances in new crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

Influence of Irrigation Timing and Nitrogen on Growth, Yield, and Quality of Rape

Joseph G. Lauer

In 1986, research was undertaken to determine the effect of irrigation timing and nitrogen on growth, yield and quality of spring rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Westar) under a furrow irrigation cropping system in Wyoming. Irrigation timing emphasized the stem elongation phase of crop development between bud formation and flowering. Nitrogen in the form of ammonium nitrate was applied at rates ranging form 39 to 302 kg N ha-1 depending on year. These rates were applied either spring (preplant incorporated) or split-applied spring and summer (preplant incorporated and top-dressed). Delaying irrigation to late stem elongation decreased yield compared to irrigation at the earlier bud stage. Increasing nitrogen rates increased yield. Split-application nitrogen treatments yielded more than spring nitrogen application treatments. No interactions between nitrogen treatment and irrigation timing were observed in any year.

Gul, Y. and S.E. Taylor. 1990. Climatic evaluation for crambe. p. 229. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), Advances in new crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

Climatic Evaluation for Crambe

Yunus Gul and S.E. Taylor

Seventeen crop-related long term average weather variables were used to classify the climate for production of crambe (Crambe abyssinica Horchst.) for Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, South Dakota to aid in selection of favorable sites for crambe establishment. The climate was classified into five climatic agricultural zones using Ward's clustering method and tolerance of cultivars to temperature and moisture was determined. Crambe growth was evaluated for potential production areas. 'Prophet' out yielded 'Meyer', 'Indy', C-50 and PI247310 in all climate types. Climate type 3, which includes northern Indiana, central and western Iowa, and southeast South Dakota, is most favorable for crambe production.
Last update February 28, 1997 by aw