Table of Contents
van Soest, L.J.M. 1993. New crop development in Europe.
p. 30-38. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), New crops. Wiley, New York.
New Crop Development in Europe
Louis J.M. van Soest
- RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
- OILSEED CROPS FOR INDUSTRIAL UTILIZATION
- Domesticated or Partly Domesticated Oilseeds
- Oilseed Crops
- Breeding Research
- CARBOHYDRATE CROPS
- FIBER CROPS
- OTHER POTENTIAL CROPS
- Table 1
- Table 2
- Table 3
- Table 4
- Table 5
- Table 6
- Fig. 1
This paper summarizes the present activities on new crop development,
particularly industrial crops in Europe. As Europe consists of more than 25
countries, this overview only briefly summarizes some of the continents new
crops activities. The paper will mainly concentrate on plant exploration and
primary production considerations of potential industrial crops, in the
European Communities. The new crop programs in The Netherlands will receive
special attention. Although several East European countries have a long
history in industrial crop research, this paper will only deal briefly with
developments in this part of Europe.
The surpluses of the major agricultural food crops in Europe have increased
interest in new directions for the utilization of agricultural land. Options
which have been taken in consideration and partly realized are: set aside
programs, reforestation, biomass production for energy, land for recreation and
nature preservation, and the production of agricultural feedstocks for
industrial utilization. Since the second part of the 1980s, the Commission of
the European Communities (EC) and several European governments, have stimulated
research programs to develop crops for the production of renewable resources
for industrial application (EC 1990; Raymond and Larvor 1985; von
Wüllerstorff 1990). In The Netherlands, the narrow crop rotation and the
intensive high input farming has caused large pressures of pests and diseases,
particularly soil born pests like cyst nematodes and fungal diseases. New
crops could reduce this pressure and broaden the present rotation.
Private breeding firms in most of the EC countries are responsible for the
cultivar development of established crops. Cultivar development of new crops
is considered a risk investment and therefore governmental institutes in Europe
are responsible for both genetic research and cultivar development.
There are four types of new crop development programs in Europe:
Agro-industrial Programs, established and co-financed by the EC,
are "pre-competitive" research programs in the areas of agro-industry (EC
1990). Participation is required by two or more countries, including research
in the field of primary production, industrial processing, transformations and
utilization of biological feedstocks. Participation of private enterprises is
sometimes required. Some of the EC programs include development of new
potential crops, such as: Cuphea, jojoba, crambe, meadowfoam, castor
bean, coriander, Dimorphotheca pluvialis (L.) Moench, Euphorbia
lagascae Spreng., high erucic rape, high oleic sunflower, flax,
Miscanthus, sweet sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, and lupines.
Bilateral Programs are not common but are carried out on an informal
basis between countries. These include exchange of information and germplasm.
National Programs have been established in several European countries in
which universities and agricultural research institutes are working on new
crops. Several new crop research programs with a duration of four years have
been developed in the Netherlands (Table 1). In the Federal Republic of
Germany programs are carried out on new oilseed crops such as coriander,
marigold, Euphorbia spp., high erucic rape, and honesty (Röbbelen
1987; Wittmeyer 1990). Other new crops under investigation in Germany include
Jerusalem artichoke, root chicory, sweet sorghum, and Miscanthus. In
the United Kingdom, a new national program for the development of
Chenopodium quinoa Willd. was initiated. An overview of a number of
potential new crops investigated in Europe is illustrated in Fig. 1. Several
countries in South Europe (France, Italy, Spain, Greece, and Portugal) are
exploring the possibilities to introduce new crops, such as kenaf, castor bean,
jojoba, Cuphea, and guayule, for the Mediterranean basin.
Industrial Programs are carried out by the private sector. Some
industries are looking into the possibilities to develop new crops for the
production of pharmaceutical, aromatic, and bioactive compounds. Research in
this area is sometimes conducted with private breeding firms (e.g. evening
primrose) but also on contract basis with governmental institutes. Information
on these programs is often difficult to obtain.
Plant exploration and primary production is presently receiving high emphasis
in European new crop programs, although several programs also involve
characterization and processing of the desirable compounds (Table 2, 3, 5, and 6). Programs within the framework of the EC-ECLAIR (European Collaborative
Linkage of Agriculture and Industry through Research) need to have industrial
partners where research on processing and application of potential products
forms an integral part of the program. These EC research programs are aiming
to improve the interface between agriculture and industry (EC 1990). In 1992,
the EC will start a new research and technological development program in the
field of Agriculture and Agro-Industry. This program with a duration of three
of four years encompasses crop diversification, particularly for non-food
Several new crops for industrial use have considerable of interest for Europe.
The status of development varies from crop to crop and the opportunities to
commercialize them depends particularly on the degree of domestication of the
crop, the economic perspective of cultivation for farmers, and the interest of
industries in the raw materials. Crops producing vegetable oils for industrial
use, fibers for paper production as well as cellulose, and carbohydrates for
industrial sugars and starches have been selected for further domestication. A
number of pharmaceutical, aromatic, and medicinal crops are under
Most of the oilseed crops under investigation in Europe produce special fatty
acids. These include more or less domesticated crops like high erucic rapeseed
and high oleic sunflower as well as those which need further domestication
(Table 2, 3). The common feature of these oilseed crops is that the unique
fatty acids in the oil are present in high amounts, sometimes up to 80%.
The production of bio-diesel from oilseed crops, particularly rapeseed, has
been under discussion in several countries in Europe.
High erucic rape seed (Brassica napus L.) and high oleic sunflower
(Helianthus annuus L.) are now commercially grown in some European
countries. The area of these crops, however, does not exceed 10,000 ha.
Breeding programs have been established to enhance the erucic acid level of
rapeseed above 50% and to increase the percentage oil of high oleic
Linseed production in Europe, particularly Great Britain, increased
tremendously from 20,000 ha in 1989 to more than 120,000 ha in 1991.
Castor bean (Rinus communis L.) and jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis
(Link) Schneid.] are not sufficiently domesticated for commercial cultivation
in Europe, but research continues in several South European countries.
According to Mignoni (1991) the first crop of jojoba was harvested in 1989 in
Sicily, Italy. Coriander (Coriander sativum L.) is presently cultivated
in Europe for aromatic, medicinal, and cosmetic purposes, however the seed-oil
which contains about 80% petroselenic acid, has potential for the production of
oleochemicals (Röbbelen 1987). The EC (Directorate General for Science,
Research and Development-DG XII) is supporting demonstration projects of most
of these more or less domesticated oilcrops particularly those with promising
market possibilities such as erucic rapeseed, oleic sunflower, and castor bean
(von Wüllerstorff 1990).
Numerous new potential oilseed crops have been introduced and evaluated,
particularly in Germany and The Netherlands (Meier zu Beerentrup and
Röbbelen 1987; Röbbelen 1987; van Soest 1990; Mulder et al. 1991).
Many produce unique fatty acids with functional groups or double bonds, but
they need to be further domesticated to achieve commercialization. In The
Netherlands some 40 different potential oilseed crops were introduced and
evaluated in the period 1986-1989 (van Soest 1990). Meier zu Beerentrup (1986)
tested nearly 50 potential vegetable oilcrops with unusual fatty acids in
Germany. Breeding research in Germany concentrates now on Calendula
officinalis L., Coriandrum sativum L., Cuphea spp., and
Euphorbia spp. Similar programs with a limited and selected number of
species which are based on experience in Germany and The Netherlands, are being
conducted in Norway and the United Kingdom. Breeding research on these crops,
however, is concentrated presently only on a selected group (Table 4). Data
obtained in The Netherlands of some promising new oilseed crops are presented
in Table 4.
There are major agricultural constraints related to the domestication of the
novel oilseed crops:
Current research in Europe is aimed at finding solutions to these constraints.
Our breeding research at the Center for Plant Breeding and Reproduction
Research (CPRO-DLO), Wageningen, concentrates on further domestication of crops
such as C. abyssinica, D. pluvialis, E. lagascae, and
L. alba. One of the major problems is to locate sufficient variation in
the available genepools for some of the constraints mentioned above. In
general, the world-wide available germplasm of most of these new oilcrops is
limited. Additional collection in the centers of origin is needed. Further
domestication and genetic enhancement in the near future will obviously create
new variation and broaden the available genepool. In C. abyssinica, a
few new cultivars and lines have been developed during the last decades.
Potential new crops being explored in Europe include both starch and sugar
producing crops for industrial use (Table 5). Some of these crops are often also
considered to have potential for the production of biomass for renewable energy
Some research is underway on the pseudograin amaranth (Amaranthus spp.),
but quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has received the most attention
(Galwey 1989; Risi 1986; van Soest 1987). Quinoa is considered a multipurpose
agro-industrial crop. The grain may be utilized for human food ("health
sector" and low diet flour products) and animal feedstocks because of its high
nutritional value. The starch with its uniformly small granules has several
potential industrial applications. Breeding for genetic adaptation is
presently a major research objective in Europe. According to Risi and Galwey
(1989), plant characters required for temperate agriculture are present to a
large extent in the accessions from near sea level in southern-central Chile,
but the seed characteristics are scattered throughout the germplasm. Further
breeding of quinoa in Europe needs to concentrate on earliness, uniformity,
higher yields and quality aspects of the protein, and physico-chemical
properties of the starch. An advantage of quinoa in Europe is that the crop is
not very susceptible to soil-born nematodes like beet cyst and root-knot
nematodes. As such, it may be of great importance in narrow crop rotations as
presently practiced in The Netherlands.
Two crops, Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) and root
chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) are sources of inulin which are stored in
the tuber or root. Inulin can be transformed into fructose syrups by means of
hydrolysis. Inulin can be used in food products as a low calory agent, whereas
the fructose syrups can be used as a sweetener in beverages. Meanwhile
application research is conducted to utilize inulin and possible derivates
(furan chemistry) as industrial feedstock (Fuchs 1989). During the last 10
years breeding and crop improvement of H. tuberosus has intensified in
Europe (Schittenhelm 1987; Spitters 1987; Mesken 1989). Meyer et al. (1991)
studied the inulin production of both crops over a two-year period in The
Netherlands and calculated inulin yields of Jerusalem artichoke from 4.5 to 8.3
t/ha, whereas root chicory produced 9.8 to 16.1 t/ha. Breeding of H.
tuberosus in The Netherlands (CPRO-DLO) resulted in some 10 clones with
inulin yields of 16 t/ha in 1989, but in the very dry year of 1990 only 7 t/ha
(Toxopeus et al. 1991). Sugar industries in The Netherlands and Belgium
recently selected root chicory as inulin-producing crop, and about 5,000 ha are
expected to be cultivated in 1992 in both countries.
- slow initial growth and development (Euphorbia lathyris L. and
Limnanthes alba Benth.)
- poor competition with weeds (L. alba and E. lathyris)
- asynchronous flowering and seed ripening [C. officinalis,
Dimorphotheca pluvialis (L.) Moench, Euphorbia lagascae Spreng.
and L. alba]
- insufficient seed retention (D. pluvialis, E. lagascae, and
- difficulties with incorporation in existing crop rotations because of pests
and diseases (Crambe abyssinica, C. officinalis, and D.
- difficulties with mechanical harvesting (L. alba, E. lagascae,
and Cuphea spp.).
Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is considered as an alternative low
input crop for the Mediterranean areas and has also been tested in Germany
(Anderlei et al. 1987). The crop can be used for syrup production, soft
drinks, and confectionery, but also has potential for the production of
renewable raw materials such as citric acid, and molasses for fermentation
(Anderlei et al. 1987).
The production of ethanol from carbohydrate crops has been under discussion and
several countries in Europe have conducted agronomic tests. The average yield
of raw sugar of sweet sorghum cultivars tested in Germany from 1982 to 1986 was
8 t/ha. Anderlei et al. (1987) calculated that in Germany ethanol production
of 5,770 liter/ha was feasible with sweet sorghum.
A number of fiber crops are cultivated or under development in Europe (Table 6). Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been cultivated for thousands of
years in Europe. During the last two decades the cultivation of fiber flax for
linen declined substantially in several countries of Europe (Riensema et al.
1990). Meanwhile research is underway for alternative utilization of flax
fibers such as composite panels, geotextiles, and reinforced plastics (Riensema
et al. 1990). The research on flax in Europe concentrates on processing and
application aspects for non-traditional outlets, but breeding is conducted to
improve fiber yield and quality related characters (Marshall 1989).
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) are
both considered as alternative fiber crops, particularly for paper pulp
production. The development of kenaf is concentrated in the Mediterranean
region in areas with subtropical climates, and focus on primary production
(e.g. cultivar testing). Hemp is grown commercially in some East European
countries, particularly for the production of textiles and rope, whereas a
small area is cultivated in France for paper production. In Hungary, hemp
hybrids have been developed with higher stem yield. In 1989, a large
multidisciplinary research program to develop hemp as alternative fiber crop
for paper pulp production started in The Netherlands. Besides disciplines
dealing with primary production, studies on economic perspectives and
processing research are included in this program. At CPRO-DLO, breeding
research on hemp concentrates on developing efficient selection methods to
increase stem yield and stem quality related properties such as bark (phloem
fibers) content. Furthermore the development of genetic stocks with low levels
of cannabinols, particularly D-9-THC and CBD is of importance for commercial
cultivation as is work on optimizing growing and harvest techniques and pulping
The perennial grass Miscanthus sinensis `Giganteus' and the annual
sorghum Sorghum vulgare var. technica (broomcorn or fiber
sorghum) are also evaluated in Europe as potential fiber crops (Nielsen 1987;
Nimz and Pilz 1991). Total dry matter production of Miscanthus can
reach 35 to 40 t/ha annually once the crops has been established (Frerichs
1991). Several research groups in northwest Europe are considering
Miscanthus as possible energy crop (Knoblauch 1991; Rupp et al. 1991).
The EC is developing demonstration projects of many fiber crops (Table 6).
A very large and diverse group of more or less domesticated crops are under
investigation in Europe. This group can be divided in a number of
Some of these crops are already cultivated, particularly in East Europe. All
these specialty crops have limited acreage which can fluctuate tremendously due
to uncertain markets. Most of these crops are of interest to individual
farmers, but can however, only partly solve the structural problems of European
Agriculture (Franz 1987).
- aromatic plants containing essential oils and flavonoids; caraway, mint,
coriander, lavender, fennel, thyme, and rose are of some importance;
- pharmaceutical/medicinal plants; crops like poppy, hemp, evening primrose,
borage, foxglove, and valerian;
- other crops producing special compounds such as for the production of dyes
(madder), latex (Euphorbia spp.), or repellents (caraway).
Evening primrose (Oenothera spp.) was introduced in the UK some 15 years
ago (Lapinskas 1989). In The Netherlands, the area of evening primrose was
approximately 700 ha in the mid-1980s, declined to about 50 ha by the end of
the decade, and now in 1991 about 1,000 ha were grown.
Caraway (Carum carvi L.) has grown in The Netherlands for the past 200
years on an area fluctuating from 100 to 10,000 ha. The seeds are mainly used
in the bakery trade, and its essential oil for cosmetic products. A national
Dutch R&D program started in 1990 to create new markets for carvone as the
most important bioactive compound of the essential oil. Potentially, carvone
can be used for the inhibition of sprouting of potatoes, as an insect
repellant, and for the inhibition of fungal growth in cereals.
Over 100 potential new crops are presently being explored in Europe. Some of
these crops are cultivated to a limited extent whereas others are only grown in
the framework of demonstration projects. Interest in new crop development has
increased tremendously in Europe during the last five years. The EC and
national governments are stimulating and increasingly funding research programs
to create alternatives for the surpluses of the major agricultural food
Although expectations of the farmers are high, it will take years before a real
breakthrough can be expected. Only a few crops have reached the stage that
would permit commercialization in the next 5 or 10 years. Most of the crops
discussed need to be further domesticated. Plant breeding for adaptation and
particularly increase of yield stability should be given high priority in
future research activities, as well as product development and marketing.
After years of plant exploration and evaluation in several European countries,
it is now time to select the most promising new crops and concentrate further
research and commercialization on these species.
- Anderlei, J., W. Mechelke, J.F. Seitzer, H. Schiweck, and G. Steinle. 1987.
Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), a renewable energy source? Results
of first experiments in Southern Germany, p. 255-258. In: Proc. Workshop on
Evaluation of Genetic Resources for Industrial Crops. Eucarpia. FAL,
- EC. 1990. ECLAIR-European Collaborative Linkage of Agriculture and Industry
through Research. 1988-1993. Commission of European Communities DG XII.
- Franz, Ch. 1987. Evaluation of genetic resources of medicinal and aromatic
plants, p. 167-184. In: Proc. Workshop on Evaluation of Genetic Resources for
Industrial Crops. Eucarpia. FAL, Braunschweig, Germany.
- Frerichs, L. 1991. Ernte und Aufbereitung von Miscanthus sinensis, p.
46-57. In: Miscanthus sinensis, KTBL-Arbeitspapier 158. Darmstadt,
- Fuchs, A. 1989. Perspectives of inulin and inulin-containing crops in the
Netherlands and in Europe, p. 80-102. In: A. Fuchs (ed.). Proc. Third Seminar
on Inulin. NRLO report nr. 90/28. Wageningen, The Netherlands.
- Galwey, N.W. 1989. Quinoa-exploited plants. Biologist 36:267-274.
- Knoblauch, F. 1991. Miscanthus sinensis `Giganteus' als nachwachsender
Energie- und Industrierohstoff in Dänemark, p. 79-83. In: Miscanthus
sinensis KTBL-Arbeitspapier 158. Darmstadt, Germany.
- Lapinskas, P. 1989. Commercial exploitation of alternative crops, with
special reference to evening primrose, p. 216-221. In: G.E. Wickens, N. Haq,
and P. Day (eds.). New crops for food and industry. Chapman and Hall, London,
- Marshall, G. 1989. Flax: Breeding and utilization. Kluwer Academic,
Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
- Meier zu Beerentrup, H. 1986. Identifizierung, erzeugung und verbesserung von
einheimischen ölsaaten mit ungewöhnlichen fettsäuren. Thesis
Universität Göttingen, Germany.
- Meier zu Beerentrup, H. and G. Röbbelen. 1987. Screening for European
productions of oilseed with unusual fatty acids. Angewandte Botanik
- Meyer, W.J.M., E.W.J.M. Mathijssen, and G.E.L. Borm. 1992. Crop
characteristics and inulin production of Jerusalem artichoke and chichory, In:
A. Fuchs (ed.). Inulin and inulin-containing crops. Elseviers, Amsterdam (in
press), The Netherlands.
- Mesken, M. 1989. Induction of flowering, seed production, and evaluation of
seedlings and clones of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.),
p. 137-143. In: G. Grassi and G. Gosse (eds.). Topinambour (Jerusalem
artichoke). Proc. Jerusalem artichoke CEC Workshop, 1987. Madrid, Spain.
- Mignoni, G. 1991. The Jesuits and the jojoba. Agro-food-Industry Hi-Tech
- Mulder, F., L.J.M. van Soest, E.P.M. de Meyer, and S.C. Wallenburg. 1992.
Current Dutch research on new oilseed crops. In: Proc. First Int. Conf. New
Ind. Crops and Products. Riverside, CA. (in press).
- Nielsen, P.N. 1987. Produktiviteten af elefantgræs, Miscanthus
sinensis `Giganteus' på forskellige jordtyper. (The productivity of
Miscanthus sinensis `Giganteus' on different soil types). Tidsskrift
for Platenavl 91:275-281.
- Nimz, H.H. and A. Pilz. 1991. Zellstoffgewinnung aus Miscanthus
sinensis `Giganteus', p. 105-113. In: Miscanthus sinensis,
KTBL-Arbeitspapier 158. Darmstadt, Germany.
- Raymond, W. and P. Larvor. 1985. Alternative uses for agricultural surpluses.
Proc. Seminar on Research and the Problems of Agricultural Science in Europe of
CEC. Elsevier Applied Science, London, England.
- Riensema, C.J., R.A.C. Koster, and T.J.H.M. Hutten. 1990. Vlas 2000 (Flax
2000). Onderzoekverslag LEI, Den Haag, The Netherlands.
- Risi, C.J. 1986. Adaptation of the Andean grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium
quinoa Willd.) for cultivation in Britain. PhD thesis, University of
- Risi, C.J. and N.W. Galwey. 1989. The pattern of genetic diversity in the
Andean grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). I. Associations
between characteristics. Euphytica 41:147-162.
- Röbbelen, G. 1987. Development of new industrial oil crops. Fat Sci.
- Rupp, M., A. Stulgies, and F. Jondanski. 1991. Energetische Nutzung von
Miscanthus-Stroh durch Vergassung, p. 90-98. In: Miscanthus sinensis.
KTBL-Arbeitspapier 158. Darmstadt, Germany.
- Schittenhelm, S. 1987. Preliminary results of a breeding programme with
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), p. 209-220. In: Proc.
Workshop on Evaluation of Genetic Resources for Industrial Crops. Eucarpia.
FAL, Braunschweig, Germany.
- Soest, L.J.M. van. 1987. Introduction and preliminary evaluation of some
potential industrial crops, p. 19-28. In: Proc. Workshop on Evaluation of
Genetic Resources for Industrial Crops. Eucarpia. FAL, Braunschweig,
- Soest, L.J.M. van. 1990. Introduction and breeding of new oil crops, p.
36-44. In: Biotechnology and fatty acids: new perspectives for agricultural
production? Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
- Spitters, C.J.T. 1987. Genetic variation in growth pattern and tuber yield in
Helianthus tuberosus L., p. 221-235. In: Proc. Workshop on Evaluation
of Genetic Resources for Industrial Crops. Eucarpia. FAL, Braunschweig,
- Toxopeus, H., J. Dieleman, and M. Mesken. 1991. Breeding techniques and
genetic improvement of productivity in Topinambour (Helianthus tuberosus
L.). Book of Abstracts of Int. Congress on Inulin and Inulin-containing Crops.
Wageningen, The Netherlands.
- Wittmeyer, D. 1990. Coordination of an industry-orientated agriculture in the
Federal Republic of Germany, p. 5-15. In: Biotechnology and fatty acids: new
perspectives for agricultural production? Pudoc, Wageningen, The
- Wüllerstorf, B. von. 1990. Outlook for oleochemicals in Europe, p. 1-4.
In: Biotechnology and fatty acids: new perspectives for agricultural
production? Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Table 1. National programs on new crops in The Netherlands (research
conducted over 4 years).
Agricultural Research Department of The Netherlands
|Crops ||R&D |
|Hemp ||I to III ||1989 ||some ||25 ||12 ||Agrotechnological Research Institute, ATO-DLO
|Caraway ||I to III ||1990 ||some ||15 ||7 ||Centre for Agribiological Research, CABO-DLO ||
|Oilseeds ||I to IV ||1990 ||yes ||17 ||9 ||Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research, CPRO-DLO ||
|Quinoa ||I and II ||1992 ||yes ||2 ||4 ||Research Station for Arable Farming and Field Production of Vegetables, PAGV-DAT |
Research and Development categories (R&D)
I = Plant exploration and evaluation
II = Crop improvement including plant breeding and agronomy
III = Processing and application research
IV = Marketing, commercialization, and utilization
Table 2. Domesticated or partly domesticated industrial oilseed crops
zSee Table 1.
|Crop ||Potential use ||R&D |
|Coriander ||Oleochemicals, cosmetics ||I to III ||Trials-demo* ||Germany, UK, Netherlands, Norway, Eastern Europe|
|Crambe ||Erucamides, plastics (nylon), lubricants ||I to III ||Trials-demo ||Bulgaria, Germany, UK, Italy Netherlands,
Norway, Sweden, USSR|
|Rapeseed (erucic) ||Erucamides, lubricants, nylon 13 ||I to IV ||Medium scale ||Germany, Eastern Europe|
|Sunflower (oleic) ||Coatings, detergents, lubricants, cosmetics ||I to IV ||Medium scale ||France, Germany, Italy|
|Linseed ||Coatings, lino ||I to IV ||Large scale ||Northwest, Eastern Europe|
|Castor ||Lubricants ||I to III ||Trials-demo ||Spain, France, Italy, Portugal|
|Jojoba ||Cosmetics, lubricants ||I to III ||Trials-demo ||Spain, France, Italy, Portugal|
Table 3. Industrial oilseeds under development in Europe.
Some exploration work on Camelina sativa, Eruca sativa,
Lesquerella spp., and Lunaria annua.
|Crop ||Principal |
|Calendula spp. ||Calendic ||I to II ||Trials ||Germany, UK, Netherlands|
|Cuphea spp. ||Short chain ||I to II ||Trials ||Germany, Portugal, Spain|
|Dimorphotheca spp. ||Dimorphecolic ||I to III ||Trials-demo ||Netherlands|
|Euphorbia lagascae ||Vernolic ||I to III ||Trials-demo ||Germany, Netherlands, Spain|
|Euphorbia lathyris ||Oleic ||I to III ||Trials-demo ||Germany, Eastern Europe|
|Limnanthes spp. ||Long chain ||I to III ||Trials-demo ||France, UK, Netherlands|
zSee Table 1.
Table 4. Seed and yield characteristics of some promising new oilseed
crops in Dutch trials, 1988-1990.
|Species ||Principal |
|Oil (%) ||Seed yield |
|Calendula officinalis ||Calendic ||58 ||17-20 ||1500-2500 ||18|
|Coriandrum sativum ||Petroselenic ||80 ||16-25 ||1500-2500 ||14|
|Crambe abyssinica ||Erucic ||58 ||26-39 ||2000-3000 ||26|
|Dimorphotheca pluvialis ||Dimorphecolic ||63 ||15-25 ||1500-1800 ||21|
|Euphorbia lagascae ||Vernolic ||61 ||45-52 ||1000-2000 ||25|
|Limnanthes alba ||Long chain ||94 ||17-29 || 200-1000 ||26|
Table 5. Crops producing carbohydrates (starch-sugars) under
development in Europe.
zSee Table 1.
|Crop ||Potential use ||R&D |
|Quinoa ||Industrial, starch, food ||I to III ||Trials-demo ||Denmark, UK, Netherlands|
|Amaranth ||Industrial, starch, food ||I and II ||Trials ||Denmark, UK|
|Root chicory ||Fructose syrup (inulin) ||I to IV ||Small scale ||Belgium, Germany, France, Netherlands|
|Jerusalem artichoke ||Fructose syrup (inulin) ||I to III ||Trials-demo ||Austria, Denmark, Germany, Spain, France, Italy, Hungary, Netherlands, USSR |
|Sweet sorghum ||Syrup, acids, solvents ||I to III ||Trials-demo ||Germany, Spain, Italy, Hungary, USSR|
Table 6. Fiber crops under development in Europe.
zSee Table 1.
|Crop ||Potential use ||R&D |
|Flax ||Linen, geotextiles, composites ||I to IV ||Large scale cultivation ||Northwest Europe, Eastern Europe|
|Hemp ||Textiles, rope, paperpulp ||I to III ||Small scale cultivation ||France, Hungary, Netherlands, Rumania, USSR|
|Kenaf ||Paperpulp, composites ||I to III ||Trials/demo ||Italy, France, Portugal|
|Miscanthus ||High quality paper, energy ||I to III ||Trials ||Denmark, Germany, Netherlands|
|Fiber sorghum ||Special paper ||I to III ||Trials ||Spain, France, Italy|
Fig. 1. Industrial crops under investigation in Europe. (Crops in bold
print are already commercialized, others need to be further domesticated.)
Last update September 5, 1997