Table of Contents
Hewett, E.W. 1993. New horticultural crops in New
Zealand. p. 57-64. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), New crops. Wiley,
New Horticultural Crops in New Zealand
Errol W. Hewett
- ESTABLISHED FRUIT CROPS
- Kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson] var deliciosa, Actinidiaceae
- Apples (Malus x domestica Borkh., Rosaceae)
- THE SOUTH AMERICAN CONNECTION
- Tree Tomato [Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendtn., Solanaceae]
- Feijoa (Feijoa sellowiana Berg, Myrtaceae)
- Pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait., Solanaceae)
- Babaco [Carica x heilbornii Badillo m. pentagona (Heilborn) Caricaceae]
- Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L., Solanaceae)
- Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., Annonaceae)
- Oca or "Yam" (Oxalis tuberosa Mol., Oxalidaceae)
- Other Crops
- NEW FLOWER CROPS
- Calla (Zantedeschia spp., Araceae)
- Nerine (Nerine spp., Amaryllidaceae)
- Sandersonia (Sandersonia auriantiaca Hook., Liliaceae)
- Other Flowers
- NATIVE PLANTS FROM NEW ZEALAND
New Zealand, a small country located in the South Pacific (latitude between
35° and 47°S and longitude 167° and 178°E) has a population of 3.3
million. Horticulture is a small but important contributor to the national
economy having NZ$1.2 billion export earnings in 1991, 7.4% of total exports
(NZ$1 = US$0.54, 1992). Four new fruit crops have been successfully introduced
to international trade during the 20th century: avocado, blueberry, kiwifruit,
and macadamia (Janick 1991). Of these, kiwifruit has arguably made the largest
and most dramatic impact over the last 20 years.
The kiwifruit is a unique fruit with unusual visual (a brown, hairy skin with a
spectacular green translucent flesh containing an attractive circle of black
seeds around a white pith), nutritive (low calories, high fiber, high
potassium, and vitamin C content), and storage (quality can be maintained for
up to 12 months in air or controlled atmosphere storage) characteristics. It
has successfully captured the imagination of traders and consumers who have
paid high prices to purchase this new fruit. Associated profitability has seen
kiwifruit planted in large numbers throughout the world during the 1980s.
New Zealand grows a wide range of temperate fruit crops, but only contributes
significantly to world trade with kiwifruit and apples. Major efforts are
currently underway to improve the existing range of cultivars to exploit
consumer demand for new taste and visual sensations.
Largely as a result of the foresight, dedication, perseverance, and skill of
the late D.W. McKenzie, major breeding and plant improvement programs are being
undertaken by the Department of Scientific Research (DSIR) on a range of crops
including kiwifruit, apples, pears, apricots, and a range of subtropical fruits.
Commercial plantings of kiwifruit in New Zealand are known to have derived from
one seed acquisition brought from China in about 1903 by Miss Isabel Fraser,
sister of Miss Katie Fraser, a missionary in Xichang. It is possible that the
majority of kiwifruit grown in New Zealand (and to a large extent elsewhere
especially France, Italy, and Australia) originated from seed from one fruit,
certainly from only a few fruit collected from the wild by E.H. Wilson from one
region in China (Ferguson 1990). Hence, the present genetic base of existing
kiwifruit plantings is extremely limited.
The genus Actinidia is known to have more than 50 species and more than
100 taxa (Liang and Ferguson 1986, Ferguson 1990). The cultivar `Hayward',
which accounts for more than 95% of the current kiwifruit plantings in New
Zealand today, was selected by Hayward Wright, a nurseryman who has been called
"the Luther Burbank of New Zealand horticulture." In the period from 1903 to
1946, when kiwifruit were grown mainly as an ornamental plant, many
enthusiastic nurserymen were involved in the propagation, improvement and sale
of these novel plants; in particular Bruno Just, Alexander Allison, James
McGregor, and Hugh Gorton, made significant contributions (Ferguson and Bollard
Scientists in DSIR recognized the inherent danger of relying on such a narrow
genetic base for the development and continued success of an important new
crop. They were also well aware of the diverse range of species, indigenous in
China, which while providing fruit for a range of products (jam, pastes,
medicines) had not been subject to any concerted or deliberative screening
programme for improving size or quality. Since the 1970s there has been a
joint effort by DSIR and Chinese scientists to obtain seed material from a
broad range of Actinidia species, to grow them together under uniform
conditions of cultivation and training for comparison of fruiting
characteristics and to obtain diverse material to be used in breeding
programmes by traditional or novel molecular biology means.
The genus Actinidia is characterized by having a wide range of growth
habits, fruit size, shape, color, and nutritive qualities. Some species are
cross compatible and interspecific crosses are easily achieved, while others
are incompatible, and interspecific hybrids may only be possible by using
recently developed embryo transfer techniques. Three major thrusts are being
adopted by scientists involved in the current breeding program:
Results from these different approaches already indicate that there is a major
potential for a dramatic increase in the range of cultivars of kiwifruit of
commercial potential. Even more exciting is the possibility of the emergence
of "new" fruits based on the genetic diversity of the Actinidia species.
These long term strategic plant improvement programs are financially supported
by the kiwifruit industry which recognizes the commercial necessity and
opportunities which accrue from successful new cultivar development.
One of the main reasons for the success of the New Zealand apple industry is
the ability to provide customers with a range of 5 to 9 distinct cultivars over
a 4 to 6 month marketing period. This contrasts with some other apple
producing countries which tend to produce only two or three major cultivars.
In addition, the New Zealand Apple and Pear Marketing Board has successfully
introduced several highly acceptable new cultivars to international trade in
recent years. The cultivars 'Braeburn', 'Gala', and 'Royal Gala' have had a
major impact in apple markets highlighting New Zealand's reputation of being
able to develop and market appealing new fruit sensations.
- to obtain improved or different selections from existing plantings or
"Hayward lookalikes." Selections already made and under evaluation include:
more uniform fruit shape, earlier fruit maturation, hermaphrodite as distinct
from diecious plants, more productive plants than `Hayward', higher vitamin C,
and reduced flats and fans.
- to develop vigor controlling rootstocks which will also offer better
flowering after mild winters, produce high export yields, enhance precocity
from young vines, and reduce flats and fans.
- to crossbreed with other Actinidia species, in particular from A.
chinensis Planchon, to produce fruit with smooth skins like a peach or
pear, maybe with different colored skins and/or flesh. A. chinensis
vines are precocious and high yielding, some are early maturing with good
flavor. A range of flesh colors from green through yellow to pink are
available, and fruit store for 2 to 3 months. Successful hybridization between
A. deliciosa and A. chinensis is likely to produce fruit
combining the desirable features of both species. A. arguta (Seibold
& Zuccarini) Planchon ex Miquel, marketed as a home garden vine in North
America, produces fruit about grape-size, very sweet, with red or green flesh.
A green skinned hairless fruit from a highly productive vine has already been
The late D.W. McKenzie, working for DSIR, with great perspicacity, foresaw the
need for a concentrated and directed breeding program to ensure a continuous
release of new apple cultivars onto major markets. With perseverance and
dedication, he overcame serious opposition in New Zealand, and acting against
prevailing international trends, initiated a program to produce a bright red,
late maturing highly flavored apple to have a market slot after 'Granny
While none of his original selections are likely to achieve major success,
subsequent releases from his work, together with hybrids from current programs,
are likely to have a substantial impact in the next decade. 'Splendour' x
'Gala' crosses are undergoing commercial evaluation and two are being focussed
on by the New Zealand Apple and Pear Marketing Board for test marketing. In
particular, GS2085, looks promising. It is a rosy pink cultivar which ripens
late in the season with 'Granny Smith'; it has an extremely crisp and crunchy
texture with a sweet flavor and a good acid balance. The trees are precocious,
like a 'Golden Delicious' in openness and vigor, having good branch angles and
carrying good fruit loads on young branches. GS2085 has tolerance to black
spot and is less susceptible to mildew than existing cultivars.
Later crosses, including selections from a collaborative program with Japanese
plant breeders, are equally, if not more exciting. It is anticipated that a
portfolio of selections will be produced which will provide quite different
taste and texture sensation for consumers contrasting markedly with major
cultivars available today. Enhanced pest and disease tolerance/resistance is
another major objective in the ongoing pome fruit breeding program in an
attempt to reduce the importance of pesticides in producing high quality fruit.
A pear breeding program is also underway in DSIR, but this is less advanced
than the apple projects. Recognition of the strategic importance of providing
new apple cultivars has resulted in considerable financial input from the New
Zealand apple industry to this program.
In tropical South American countries, at altitudes between 2,000 and 3,000 m,
there occur endemic fruiting plants that are really warm temperate species.
Many of these appear to be well adapted to warmer parts of New Zealand. Over
the past 20 years, both private and Government sponsored expeditions have
visited a number of countries, including Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and
Brazil to obtain propagating material for evaluation under New Zealand
conditions. The rapid destruction of natural rainforest vegetation in several
of these countries is placing many precious food plants at risk of extinction;
there is an urgent need to collect and preserve as many of these plants as soon
as possible if they are not to be lost forever. New Zealand has been fortunate
in being recipients of some most interesting fruit and vegetable crops from
South America, many of which were common foods of the Incas (Veitmeyer 1991).
The tree tomato [renamed the tamarillo in New Zealand, not to be confused with
the tomatillo (Physalis ixocorpa Brot.)] is an egg shaped/sized, bright
red fruit developed in New Zealand from seed thought to have been obtained from
a missionary in Ecuador early this century. In the wild, the fruit is
generally small, splotchy and yellow or pale red in color (Veitmeyer 1991).
Large red-fruited strains were developed by nurserymen in New Zealand, and
recently large golden colored cultivars have been produced.
Tamarillos are rapidly growing trees which produce good crops after 18 months.
They are frost tender which limits their distribution. Fruit is highly
attractive, but some people find the skin and flesh too astringent to make it a
popular fresh fruit. While the fruit has a high vitamin C content, it has a
limited storage life, suffering from chilling injury and postharvest pathogens
if maintained below 5°C for any sustained period of time. Fruit processes
extremely well. They can be frozen or canned and can be used for a range of
products including jam, pulp, puree, chutney, and juice; there is considerable
potential for combining with milk products such as yogurt.
Unfortunately, tamarillo trees are easily infected with tamarillo mosaic virus,
which results in production of blotchy, streaked unattractive fruit. Until
disease resistant stock can be obtained, opportunities for existing tamarillo
cultivars are limited. A wide range of seeds have been collected from
indigenous tamarillo plants in South America and these are currently under
Originating in the plateau lands of southeast Brazil, the feijoa, known as
pineapple guava in California, has been grown in New Zealand for many years.
It has a shrub-like growth habit producing attractive flowers. It is more
hardy than tamarillo, being able to tolerate mild winter frosts. In
California, it is grown mainly as an ornamental hedge, while in southern
Russia and Israel, it has been grown as a commercial fruit crop. Until
recently, most plantings in New Zealand have been with seedlings, resulting in
extreme variation in fruit size, shape, flavor, and keeping quality. Over the
last decade, a number of improved selections have been made and the
availability of grafted plants is ensuring consistency in fruiting.
The ovoid green skinned fruit with vanilla-colored flesh has a very sweet and
aromatic taste when eaten fresh. Flesh has to be scooped as the skin is
bitter. No satisfactory maturity index has been developed so it is difficult
to determine optimum harvest maturity. Fruit catching structures are placed
under trees by the serious feijoa growers in order to prevent fruit dropping to
the ground when ripe; if this occurs fruit is likely to be damaged and become
infected with postharvest pathogens. Recent research has produced cultivars
with large fruit having thin smooth dark green skins, strong aromatic flavor,
good sugar/acid balance, smooth texture with a minimum of grittiness, and a
moderate storage life. Fruit may be canned to create a pleasing product.
The pepino is a small, shrubby plant which produces large (up to 15 cm
diameter) fruit with a sweet smell, subtle flavor, and attractive yellow/golden
skin color often with purple stripes. It is grown widely in the north of South
America and cultivated extensively in Chile. Seed material, introduced to New
Zealand in 1973, produced extremely variable fruit with a range of shapes and
flavors. It grows well in New Zealand, generally in the same climate as
tomato. Early sales of seedling fruit by entrepreneur growers wanting to cash
in on this new crop, created serious market problems, as fruit was often small,
bitter, unattractive to both the eye and the palate.
A selection and breeding programme by DSIR scientists in conjunction with a
committed and enthusiastic grower, has led to the production of several
outstanding cultivars. However, best crops seem to be produced under protected
cultivation and many management problems involving nutrition temperature,
light, and maturity indices have still to be solved.
In spite of an apparently receptive market in Japan for high quality pepinos,
this industry has virtually lapsed for want of necessary research input.
The babaco is native of Ecuador and is a hybrid between two Andean papayas,
producing more and larger fruit than the mountain papayas. It was introduced
to New Zealand in 1973, but popularized by an ardent nurseryman who made
numerous visits to Ecuador to collect this and other exotic fruit material.
Babaco is extremely productive, producing large (2 kg) green, torpedo shaped
fruit hanging in clusters around the trunk. The fruit has a subtle flavor when
ripe; it is very refreshing to eat and make an acceptable and healthy juice.
Although difficult to propagate initially, many plants were sold to real and
"would-be" horticulturists during the boom times of the early 1980s. However,
this crop has not been a commercial success either locally or for export,
possible because of their novelty (and lack of promotion) and their large size
(they are too expensive for the consumer wanting to try something new).
These plants grow all over the Andes and were fruit of the Incas (Veitmeyer
1991). Cape gooseberries (which are neither gooseberries nor from the Cape;
seeds were obtained from the Cape of Good Hope late last century) are grown on
a few small properties in New Zealand. Production is small and fruit is
supplied mainly to the local market. Removed from the paper-like husks, the
attractive yellow marble-sized fruit makes an extremely tasty jam. Fruit has a
high vitamin A, B, and C content, is a rich source of carotene, phosphorous,
and iron, and also contains vitamin P. It may be eaten fresh, in salads or in
cocktails. No research effort is being made in New Zealand to improve this
Considerable interest is currently being shown for this green-skinned,
softball-sized fruit sometimes called "the queen of subtropical fruits." A
range of cultivars have been introduced from Ecuador, Chile, and Peru for
evaluation in warmer climates in New Zealand and several commercial orchards
have been planted. A reasonable market potential seems to exist for this very
tasty fruit (enhanced by the recent freeze in California which destroyed a
major production area). However, selection of cultivars for good production of
high quality fruit in marginal New Zealand climatic conditions is still
necessary; fruit with fewer seeds and extended shelf life are also required
before this fruit could become a substantial export earner from New Zealand.
The oca (or yam as it is called in New Zealand) is a small, red, waxy, crinkled
tuber was probably a staple food item of the Andean Indians (Veitmeyer 1991).
They are grown on a very small scale in a localized area in New Zealand and
sold only on the local market. The tubers have a tangy, acid nutty flavor and
are eaten mainly with roast dinners. The original planting material probably
came from Chile to New Zealand in the late 1800s with immigrants. Oca does not
seem to be widely grown outside of South American countries and so appears to
qualify as "one of the lost crops of the Incas" (Veitmeyer 1991).
A range of other unusual and exotic South American food crops are being grown
in New Zealand, generally by enthusiastic horticulturalists. These include:
naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam., Solanaceae), which produces an
orange hairy fruit which makes a green frothy drink, and has a flavor
reminiscent of pineapple and strawberry; capulin cherry (Prunus capuli
Cav., Rosaceae) a red skinned, green fleshed fruit with excellent flavor; yacon
(Polymnia sonchifolia Poepp. & Endl., Asteraceae) a root vegetable,
which when eaten uncooked, is very crunchy, watery to translucent, and sweet.
Any attempt to improve or develop these plants further is being undertaken by
Another fruit vegetable that has received some interest in recent years is the
kiwano or African Horned Melon (Cucumis metuliferus E.H. Mey. ex
Schrad., Cucurbitaceae). It grows on the fringes of the Kalahari Desert in
Africa and was introduced to New Zealand during the 1970s. The orange spiny
fruit with intensely green flesh is extremely attractive. The fruit has many
seeds, a subtle flavor, and has an excellent storage life at room temperature.
However, it is more of a novelty crop and has not undergone commercial
New Zealand is a very small producer of flowers by international standards.
Orchids are the most important flower in terms of exports. However, there are
a few new flower types that have been developed which are poised to make a
contribution in the near future. Private breeders are also producing
international prize winning cultivars with traditional flowers.
Originating in Southern Africa, several New Zealand nurserymen have specialized
in developing an extensive range of new brightly colored callas. These are
versatile plants and can be used as bedding plants, pot plants, and cut
flowers. A considerable amount of basic research has been undertaken at Massey
University to understand the factors controlling the growth cycle of these
plants, including flowering, dormancy, and productivity, with a view to
producing a production management blueprint for purchasers of the export tubers
and plants (Funnell et al. 1988). A recent innovation has been to develop a
miniature potted version of the white arum lily (Z. aethiopica cv.
Childsiana) which holds considerable potential as a decorative or commemorative
In recent years, New Zealand has obtained ownership of probably the most
extensive collection of nerine species and cultivars in cultivation in the
world. A very limited number of growers are involved in evaluating this
collection in New Zealand conditions, with a view to exporting both bulbs and a
range of diversely colored cultivars.
A protected genera now in South Africa, Sandersonia stock was obtained by a New
Zealand nurseryman over 70 years ago, but commercial development has been very
slow. Grown from tubers, the plants produce beautiful, orange, bell-like
granny's bonnet shaped flowers which have a reasonable shelf life. Both tubers
and cut flowers are grown for export.
New Zealand has some highly accomplished private flower breeders who are making
major advances in new cultivars. Prominent among these are: Keith Hammett who
has gained international awards for his outstanding new selections of dahlias,
sweet peas, and carnations; Sam McGredy, originally from Ireland, who now
resides in New Zealand and continues to produce world class roses with infinite
shape, color, and aroma; Bill Doreen who has been producing a wide range of
colorful and exciting lilies for many years.
A number of other flower crops are being grown by committed enthusiasts; these
include peony, leucodendrons, limonium, and gypsophila. A recent novel
development has been the production of miniature flower plants of
Leptospermum spp. (Myrtaceae) and kowhai [Sophora spp.,
Leguminosae (subfamily Faboideae)].
New Zealand has a unique flora. Many indigenous shrubs and trees are not
well-known in other parts of the world. Some of these have potential for pot
plants or foliage. While some have been developed by nurserymen for local
sale, most of the range of foliage and flower types available have not been
utilized as commercial products.
A number of Cordyline spp. and Phormium spp. (both Agavaceae)
have been selected; these include dwarf species, and selections with a range of
foliage from deep reds through yellow to green, as well as a range of
One tree with considerable potential is the pohutakawa or New Zealand Christmas
tree (Meterosideros spp., Myrtaceae). In the wild, it grows as a huge
gnarled tree, often protruding precariously from high cliffs overlooking the
sea. Trees have brilliant crimson red flowers which cover the whole tree in
December in New Zealand. It is possible to produce trees in pots and to induce
flowering within two years of planting. Further research is required to
manipulate growth and flowering with more precision before a successful export
industry can develop, but there is considerable potential for this spectacular
Hebe spp. (Scrophulariaceae) are common throughout New Zealand. Many
have been developed as garden and potted plants, as much for their varied
foliage as for their range of flower types. Increasingly, these Hebes are
being developed in countries other than New Zealand, (Denmark) as successful
commercial nursery plants.
Possingham (1990) identified two contrasting influences at work in
horticultural industries in developed countries. On the one hand there is a
strong move to develop new and exotic crops, often drawn from diverse species
growing in the wild, which have the potential to produce good profits for
growers and others involved in horticultural trade. On the other hand, there
is a reduction in the number of cultivars being grown as market requirements
define apparently narrower quality characteristics.
New Zealand horticulture generally follows the first trend. While Maoris, the
original inhabitants of New Zealand, brought several vegetable crops, notably
the sweet potato, with them from the Pacific, the majority of new plant
introductions occurred with the arrival of English settlers in the late 19th
Most of the traditional horticultural crops grown in New Zealand are well known
in other fruit growing countries in temperate climates. Introductions of
apples, pears, stonefruit, berryfruit, citrus, flowers, and ornamental plants
continue to this day from diverse international sources.
However, there has been a large element of serendipity in the introduction of
new or different plants. Missionaries, travellers, explorers, and visitors
have all had an influence on the introduction of new and unusual plants. The
kiwifruit from China and the range of species from South America exemplify this
Highly skilled, observant, and entrepreneurial nurserymen probably had the
major role in transforming wild growing species into potential commercial
cultivars. Many of these nurserymen were very talented plantsmen who initiated
plant improvement programs themselves by selection and breeding. The seminal
influence of Alexander Allison, Bruno Just, and Hayward Wright in the initial
development of the kiwifruit has been well documented (Ferguson and Bollard
1990). The influence of nurserymen on the development of other crops mentioned
in this article is not documented.
Invariably, success depended on the efforts of a "champion" of the crop.
Whether this champion was a nurseryman, a grower, a scientist, or a marketer,
almost without exception, any product which has achieved any economic
significance in New Zealand can be identified with an enthusiastic, committed,
and skillful plantsman who are unabashed advocates for their particular crop.
A more recent feature of new crop development in New Zealand has been the
involvement of Government scientists, mainly from DSIR, but also from the
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and from Universities. The Government
has funded a number of plant improvement programs, both in selection and
breeding in major and minor crops, and the scientists involved have worked
closely with growers and nurserymen. This collaboration has accelerated in the
last two decades, particularly but not exclusively with the major crops such as
apples and kiwifruit.
Both of these industries have well developed infrastructures and a strong
marketing role. Industry personnel have agreed with scientists on the
strategic importance of developing an extended range of cultivars which should
provide a market advantage for this country in the future. Input from
marketing experts to the scientists breeding program is an important
characteristic of today's efforts which are underpinned by both Government and
While many other groups have developed to represent the collective interests of
those producing or marketing particular products, they lack the organizational
structure and the financial success of the major product groups. Consequently
less "seed" money has been available for attracting subsequent Government
Recent structural and philosophical changes have occurred in science
organization in New Zealand which is impacting on research carried out on minor
horticultural crops. The 1980s have seen the introduction of "user pays;" that
is research perceived to bring direct benefit to an individual or an industry
is expected to be increasingly funded by that individual or industry.
Therefore, while the apple and kiwifruit industries currently contribute nearly
$6 million to research, and as a consequence still receive substantial
Government support, minor industries are in no position to provide enough
funding to attract significant Government support. In spite of the fact that
there is potential for commercial success from one or more of a range of
"sunrise" crops, (i.e. crops at early stages of development and perceived to
have potential for growth), the Government policy of not picking winners and
not funding research on crops/sectors that do not provide research funds, means
that the effort being directed into minor crops has diminished drastically over
the past eight years.
New Zealand has turned a complete circle. Successful development of new and
exotic crops in the future will come again from the private nurseryman, the
enthusiastic amateur horticulturist, the perceptive grower, and from the
non-institutional groups such as the Tree Crops Society. Either individually
or collectively they will collect, import, select, and develop horticultural
crops which they will champion. Only when an individual crop can be
demonstrated to have commercial success will the Government research scientists
be in a position to lend their considerable expertise to further improvement.
New Zealand will continue to have an international reputation for producing a
diverse range of new and exciting horticultural crops. New apples and
kiwifruit, diverse and colorful plants and flowers, and exotic fruits sourced
from South America will be traded successfully in world fruit markets during
- Ferguson, A.R. 1990. Botanical nomenclature: Actinidia chinensis,
Actinidia deliciosa and Actinidia setosa, p.36-57. In: I.J.
Warrington and G.C. Weston (eds.). Kiwifruit science and management. Ray
Richards, Auckland, New Zealand.
- Ferguson, A.R. and E.G. Bollard. 1990. Domestication of the kiwifruit,
p.165-246. In: I.J. Warrington and G.L. Weston (eds.). Kiwifruit science and
management. Ray Richards, Auckland, New Zealand.
- Funnell, K.A., B.O. Tjia, C.J. Stanley, D. Cohen, and J.R. Sedcote. 1988.
Effect of storage temperature, duration, and gibberellic acid on the flowering
of Zantedeschia elliotiana and Z. 'Pink Satin'. J. Amer. Soc.
Hort. Sci. 113:860-863.
- Janick, J. 1991. New fruits from old genes. Acta Hort. 297:25-42.
- Liang, C.F. and A.R. Ferguson. 1986. The botanical nomenclature of the
kiwifruit and related taxa. New Zealand J. Bot. 24:183-184.
- Possingham, J.V. 1990. Under-exploited wild species that have potential for
horticulture, p. 49-55. In: 23 I.H.C. Lectures. Special publication of the
International Society for Horticultural Science from the XXIII Int. Hort.
Cong., Firenze, Italy.
- Vietmeyer, N. 1991. Lost crops of the Incas. New Zealand Geographic
Last update April 2, 1997