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N Use By Plants
Nitrate Assimilation
Ammonia Assimilation
Glu, Gln, Asn, Gly, Ser
Asp, Ala, GABA
Val, Leu, Ileu, Thr, Lys
Pro, Arg, Orn
Non-protein AAs
Sulfate Assimilation
Cys, Met, AdoMet, ACC
His, Phe, Tyr, Tryp
Secondary Products
Onium Compounds
HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology

References, xanthophyll

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Domonkos I, Malec P, Laczko-Dobos H, Sozer O, Klodawska K, Wada H, Strzalka K, Gombos Z. Phosphatidylglycerol depletion induces an increase in myxoxanthophyll biosynthetic activity in Synechocystis PCC6803 cells. Plant Cell Physiol. 50: 374-382 (2009).

Ebbert V, Adams WW, Mattoo AK, Sokolenko A, Demmig-Adams B. Up-regulation of a photosystem II core protein phosphatase inhibitor and sustained D1 phosphorylation in zeaxanthin-retaining, photoinhibited needles of overwintering Douglas fir. Plant Cell Environ. 28: 232-240 (2005).

Elizabeth Abreu M, Munne-Bosch S. Hyponastic leaf growth decreases the photoprotective demand, prevents damage to photosystem II and delays leaf senescence in Salvia broussonetii plants. Physiol. Plant. 134: 369-379 (2008).

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Esteban R, Olano JM, Castresana J, Fernandez-Marin B, Hernandez A, Becerril JM, Garcia-Plazaola JI. Distribution and evolutionary trends of photoprotective isoprenoids (xanthophylls and tocopherols) within the plant kingdom. Physiol. Plant. 135: 379-389 (2009).

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Galpaz N, Wang Q, Menda N, Zamir D, Hirschberg J. Abscisic acid deficiency in the tomato mutant high-pigment 3 leading to increased plastid number and higher fruit lycopene content. Plant J. 53: 717-730 (2008).

Garcia-Plazaola J, Becerril JM. Seasonal changes in photosynthetic pigments and antioxidants in beech (Fagus sylvatica) in a Mediterranean climate: implications for tree decline diagnosis. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 28: 225-232 (2001).

Gevaert F, Creach A, Davoult D, Holl AC, Seuront L, Lemoine Y. Photo-inhibition and seasonal photosynthetic performance of the seaweed Laminaria saccharina during a simulated tidal cycle: chlorophyll fluorescence measurements and pigment analysis. Plant Cell Environ. 25: 859-872 (2002).

Ghassemian M, Lutes J, Chang HS, Lange I, Chen W, Zhu T, Wang X, Lange BM. Abscisic acid-induced modulation of metabolic and redox control pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytochemistry 69: 2899-2911 (2008).

Gilmore AM, Matsubara S, Ball MC, Barker DH, Itoh S. Excitation energy flow at 77 K in the photosynthetic apparatus of overwintering evergreens. Plant Cell Environ. 26: 1021-1034 (2003).

Gisselsson A, Szilagyi A, Akerlund HE. Role of histidines in the binding of violaxanthin de-epoxidase to the thylakoid membrane as studied by site-directed mutagenesis. Physiol. Plant. 122: 337-343 (2004).

Golan T, Muller-Moule P, Niyogi KK. Photoprotection mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana acclimate to high light by increasing photosynthesis and specific antioxidants. Plant Cell Environ. 29: 879-887 (2006).

Gonzalez-Moro MB, Loureiro-Beldarrain I, Estavillo JM, Dunabeitia MK, Munoz-Rueda A, Gonzalez-Murua C. Effect of photorespiratory C2 acids on CO2 assimilation, PSII photochemistry and the xanthophyll cycle in maize. Photosynth. Res. 78: 161-173 (2003).

Goss R. Substrate specificity of the violaxanthin de-epoxidase of the primitive green alga Mantoniella squamata (Prasinophyceae). Planta 217: 801-812 (2003).

Gotz T, Sandmann G, Romer S. Expression of a bacterial carotene hydroxylase gene (crtZ) enhances UV tolerance in tobacco. Plant Mol. Biol. 50: 129-142 (2002).

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Graham JE, Bryant DA. The biosynthetic pathway for myxol-2' fucoside (myxoxanthophyll) in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002. J. Bacteriol. 191: 3292-3300 (2009).

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Han Q, Shinohara K, Kakubari Y, Mukai Y. Photoprotective role of rhodoxanthin during cold acclimation in Cryptomeria japonica. Plant Cell Environ. 26: 715-723 (2003).

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Harvaux M, Kloppstech K. The protective functions of carotenoid and flavonoid pigments against excess visible radiation at chilling temperature investigated in Arabidopsis npq and tt mutants. Planta 213: 953-966 (2001).

Havaux M, Bonfils JP, Lutz C, Niyogi KK. Photodamage of the photosynthetic apparatus and its dependence on the leaf developmental stage in the npq1 Arabidopsis mutant deficient in the xanthophyll cycle enzyme violaxanthin de-epoxidase. Plant Physiol. 124: 273-284 (2000).

Havaux M, Eymery F, Porfirova S, Rey P, Dormann P. Vitamin E protects against photoinhibition and photooxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell 17: 3451-3469 (2005).

Havaux M, Lutz C, Grimm B. Chloroplast membrane photostability in chlP transgenic tobacco plants deficient in tocopherols. Plant Physiol. 132: 300-310 (2003).

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Heyde S, Jahns P. The kinetics of zeaxanthin formation is retarded by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Plant Physiol. 117: 659-665 (1998).

Hikosaka K, Kato MC, Hirose T. Photosynthetic rates and partitioning of absorbed light energy in photoinhibited leaves. Physiol. Plant. 121: 699-708 (2004).

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Ivanov AG, Miskiewicz E, Clarke AK, Greenberg BM, Huner NP. Protection of photosystem II against UV-A and UV-B radiation in the cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum: the role of growth temperature and growth irradiance. Photochem. Photobiol. 72: 772-779 (2000).

Jiao DM, Ji BH. Photoinhibition in indica and japonica subspecies of rice (Oryza sativa) and their reciprocal F-1 hybrids. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 28: 299-306 (2001).

Jin E, Feth B, Melis A. A mutant of the green alga Dunaliella salina constitutively accumulates zeaxanthin under all growth conditions. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 81: 115-124 (2003).

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Lohr M, Wilhelm C. Algae displaying the diadinoxanthin cycle also possess the violaxanthin cycle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96: 8784-8789 (1999).

Lohr M, Wilhelm C. Xanthophyll synthesis in diatoms: quantification of putative intermediates and comparison of pigment conversion kinetics with rate constants derived from a model. Planta 212: 382-391 (2001).

Loik ME. The effect of cactus spines on light interception and photosystem II for three sympatric species of Opuntia from the Mojave Desert. Physiol. Plant. 134: 87-98 (2008).

Loreto F, Pinelli P, Manes F, Kollist H. Impact of ozone on monoterpene emissions and evidence for an isoprene-like antioxidant action of monoterpenes emitted by Quercus ilex leaves. Tree Physiol. 24: 361-367 (2004).

Lovelock CE, Robinson SA. Surface reflectance properties of Antarctic moss and their relationship to plant species, pigment composition and photosynthetic function. Plant Cell Environ. 25: 1239-1250 (2002).

Lu C, Lu Q, Zhang J, Kuang T. Characterization of photosynthetic pigment composition, photosystem II photochemistry and thermal energy dissipation during leaf senescence of wheat plants grown in the field. J. Exp. Bot. 52: 1805-1810 (2001).

Lu CM, Lu QT, Zhang JH, Zhang Q, Kuang TY. Xanthophyll cycle, light energy dissipation and photosystem II down-regulation in senescent leaves of wheat plants grown in the field. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 28: 1023-1030 (2001).

Luis JC, Martin R, Frias I, Valdes F. Enhanced carnosic acid levels in two rosemary accessions exposed to cold stress conditions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 8062-8066 (2007).

Maass D, Arango J, Wst F, Beyer P, Welsch R. Carotenoid crystal formation in Arabidopsis and carrot roots caused by increased phytoene synthase protein levels. PLoS One 4: e6373 (2009).

Macko S, Wehner A, Jahns P. Comparison of violaxanthin de-epoxidation from the stroma and lumen sides of isolated thylakoid membranes from Arabidopsis: implications for the mechanism of de-epoxidation. Planta 216: 309-314 (2002).

Maiwald D, Dietzmann A, Jahns P, Pesaresi P, Joliot P, Joliot A, Levin JZ, Salamini F, Leister D. Knock-out of the genes coding for the Rieske protein and the ATP-synthase delta-subunit of Arabidopsis. Effects on photosynthesis, thylakoid protein composition, and nuclear chloroplast gene expression. Plant Physiol. 133: 191-202 (2003).

Masamoto K, Wada H, Kaneko T, Takaichi S. Identification of a gene required for cis-to-trans carotene isomerization in carotenogenesis of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Plant Cell Physiol. 42: 1398-1402 (2001).

Masojidek J, Torzillo G, Koblizek M, Kopecky J, Bernardini P, Sacchi A, Komenda J. Photoadaptation of two members of the Chlorophyta (Scenedesmus and Chlorella) in laboratory and outdoor cultures: changes in chlorophyll fluorescence quenching and the xanthophyll cycle. Planta 209: 126-135 (1999).

Matsubara S, Gilmore AM, Osmond CB. Diurnal and acclimatory responses of violaxanthin and lutein epoxide in the Australian mistletoe Amyema miquelii. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 28: 793-800 (2001).

Matsubara S, Morosinotto T, Bassi R, Christian AL, Fischer-Schliebs E, Luttge U, Orthen B, Franco AC, Scarano FR, Forster B, Pogson BJ, Osmond CB. Occurrence of the lutein-epoxide cycle in mistletoes of the Loranthaceae and Viscaceae. Planta 217: 868-879 (2003).

Matsubara S, Morosinotto T, Osmond CB, Bassi R. Short- and long-term operation of the lutein-epoxide cycle in light-harvesting antenna complexes. Plant Physiol. 144: 926-941 (2007).

Matsubara S, Naumann M, Martin R, Nichol C, Rascher U, Morosinotto T, Bassi R, Osmond B. Slowly reversible de-epoxidation of lutein-epoxide in deep shade leaves of a tropical tree legume may 'lock-in' lutein-based photoprotection during acclimation to strong light. J. Exp. Bot. 56: 461-468 (2005).

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Muller-Moule P, Havaux M, Niyogi KK. Zeaxanthin deficiency enhances the high light sensitivity of an ascorbate-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 133: 748-760 (2003).

Munne-Bosch S, Alegre L. Plant aging increases oxidative stress in chloroplasts. Planta 214: 608-615 (2002).

Munne-Bosch S, Alegre L. Changes in carotenoids, tocopherols and diterpenes during drought and recovery, and the biological significance of chlorophyll loss in Rosmarinus officinalis plants. Planta 210: 925-931 (2000).

Munne-Bosch S, Penuelas J. Photo- and antioxidative protection, and a role for salicylic acid during drought and recovery in field-grown Phillyrea angustifolia plants. Planta 217: 758-766 (2003).

Munne-Bosch S, Penuelas J. Photo- and antioxidative protection during summer leaf senescence in Pistacia lentiscus L. grown under Mediterranean field conditions. Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 92: 385-391 (2003).

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